Eliphalet M. Brown, Jr.

Daguerreotypist and Artist
for the Perry Expedition To Japan

Eliphalet M. Brown was an accomplished daguerreotypist, lithographer and artist (historical, portrait and marine). In 1846 he was listed in business with, James Sydney Brown, a portrait painter in New York City. The business was know as E. & J. Brown. This business terminated in 1848. In 1851 Brown worked with Charles Severyn, a lithographer, and then Currier and Ives starting in 1852. While working as a lithographer for Currier and Ives, he was chosen as the daguerreotypist to accompany Commodore Perry's expedition to Japan. It is unclear when E. Brown actually gained his skills as a daguerreotypist. He probably learned them from his brother in the period from 1848-52. Brown was personally selected as to accompany the Expedition by Commodore Perry. Apparently his know skill as an artist overcame his rather weak experience as a daguerreotypist in Perry's decision making process. This was to prove a wise choice. As you will see below, Brown's skills as an artist proved just as valuable to Perry as his skills as a photographer.

Brown reportedly took more than 400 photographic images during the two-year expedition. The following 19 lithographed plates in Volume 1 of the Government published Narrative of the Expedition are attributed directly to Brown's daguerreotypes.

    Title - "Lettering on Plate" (Lithographic Firm Producing Plate & Location)

  1. China Girl "From a Dage by E. Brown" (Duval, Pa)
  2. Chief Magistrate of Napha Lew Chew "Dag by Brown" (Duval, PA)
  3. Regent of Lew Chew "Dag and drawn by Brown" (Ackerman, NY)
  4. Regent of Lew Chew "Dag and drawn by Brown" (Ackerman, NY)
  5. Afternoon Gossip Lew Chew "Daguerretypes by Brown Jr" (Duval, PA)
  6. Lew Chew Costumes, Middle Class "Dag and drawn by E. Brown, Jr and by Heine" (Ackerman, NY)
  7. Chief Interpreter Moryamo Yenoski and Tako Juro, Interpreter "Dag by E Brown, JR" (Sinclair's, PA)
  8. Japanese Woman from Simoda "From A Dage by E Brown" (Duval, PA)
  9. Mother and Child (Shimoda) "" (Ackerman, NY)
  10. Priest in Full Dress Simoda "Dag by E. Brown, Jr." (Sinclair's, PA)
  11. Budhist Priest "From a Dage by E. Brown" (Duval, PA)
  12. Bell House at Simoda "Dag by E. Brown, Jr." (Sarony, NY)
  13. Kura-Kawa-Kahai, Prefect of Shimoda "Dag by E. Brown, Jr." (Sarony, NY)
  14. Japanese Women, Simoda "Dag by E. Brown, Jr." (Sinclair's, PA)
  15. Bungo or Prefect, Hahodadi "Dag by E. Brown, Jr." (Sinclair's, PA)
  16. Entrance to a Temple at Hakotadi "Dag by E. Brown, Jr" (Sarony, NY)
  17. Deputy of the Prince of Matsmay "Dag. by E. Brown." (Ackerman, NY)
  18. Prince of Idzu "E. Brown, dag." (Sinclair's, PA)
  19. Tatsnoski, Second Interpreter "Dag by E. Brown, Jr." (Sinclair's, NY)

    Probably from a Drawing by Brown and Not a Daguerreotype -

  20. Rajah of Singapore "From Life by E. Brown" (Sarony, NY)

In addition to the above 20 plates in which E. Brown is listed as the only artist, he is listed with "W. Heine" on 17 other plates. On these he is credited with "Figures by Brown" or "Shipping by Brown." Brown's contribution of 37 to the total of 90 plates used in the publication (90) was significant. Further, his sketch work was the basis of numerous woodcut text illustrations in Volume 1 of the Narrative.

The disposition of Brown's work from the expedition is unknown. Apparently some ( of the daguerrotypes were destroyed in a fire at the printer, P.S. Duval, where they were being used in the preparation of the lithographs for the narrative. What is known for certain is that almost none of them can be located now. Only five of Brown's daguerreotypes from the expedition have been located. One, an image of Gohachiro Namura, is in the Visual Collections of the Bishop Museum, Honolulu. The other four confirmed daguerreotypes are in Japan. All these images are discussed by Bruce T. Erickson in his article on E. Brown (see note below). I suppose there is a remote possibility that at least a small portion of Brown's work product from the expedition remains tucked away in Government achieves.

After the Expedition to Japan, Brown remained in the Navy. However, he did not serve as an artist or photographer. He served during the Civil War and earned an ensign's commission. He retired from the Navy in 1875.

Eliphalet M. Brown, Jr, was born in 1816 and died in 1886.

An excellent article by Bruce T. Erickson on Eliphalet Brown is found in The Daguerreian Annual 1990, Official Yearbook of the Daguerreian Society titled "Eliphalet M. Brown, Jr., An Early Expedition Photographer." Click here. for more information on this article.


Brown and the Perry Expedition to Japan

Brown at Work with his Daguerreotype

As Shown in the Temple at
Tumai, Lew Chew Lithograph

On his return from the Expedition to Japan, brown produced/published a series of six large (Elephant folio - 3 ft x 2 ft) hand colored lithographic prints depicting scenes from the expedition. The lithographs were developed from his own work as well as the work of another Expedition artist, Wilhelm Heine. For more information on these prints, click here. The print below is one of the six lithographs in this folio. This grand work appears to be his last public effort as an artist or photographer.

This is the "Elephant Print" Titled "Passing the Rubicon."

Key Photograph Reference Works
(Mostly Meiji Era Related)

Note 1a.
Bennett, Terry:
Old Japanese Photographs Collectors' Data Guide, London, Bernard Quaritch Ltd., 2006,  Terry Bennett, 8vo, navy blue cloth with gilt title on spine, dust jacket, 308 pp. A must for the person interested in Meiji era photography and photographers. This work will, no doubt, become a standard reference for the collector and student of early photography in Japan. The book spans the period from the importation of the first camera into Japan (1848) through the death of the Emperor Meiji in 1912. It includes sections with old and new articles on photography in Japan, important research data (including Masonic photographers in Japan), numerically sequenced listings, by photograph studio, of over 4,000 photographs (numbers and captions are provided in the listings), a comprehensive index of Japan related stereoview photographers and publishers (350+) during the period of 1859-1912 by Rob Oechsle and reprints of photograph studio advertisements found in publications of the period. The index of stereoview photographers and publishers is supplemented in the research data section of the book with detailed numerical/caption lists of Japan related stereoviews in 13 different sets. ISBN: 0955085241.
Available, Purchase Here

Note 1b.
Bennett, Terry:
Photography in Japan 1853-1912, Singapore, Tokyo, Rutland, Vermont, Tuttle Publishing, 2006,  Terry Bennett, 4to (9 1/2 x 12 3/8 in - 24 x 31.3 cm), gold colored hard covers with white lettering on front and spine, illustrated dust jacket, numerous color reproductions, 320 pp. The definitive English language history of photography in Japan through the end of the Meiji era (1912). The book presents the photo-history of Japan from early photographic experiments and the recording of the first photographic images (1850s), to the establishment of studios by Westerners in newly opened Japan (1860s), to the emergence of major competition by Japanese photographs (1870s), to the decline of Western studios (1880s), to the domination by Japanese studios (1890s) and finally to the full control by Japanese studios (1900s). In this context, Terry Bennett discusses the key photographers and photographic entrepreneurs and presents an amazing amount of biographical information. Reproductions of stunning photographs, many in color, supplement the biographies of the key actors. The book contains reproductions of approximately 400 images (primarily photographs) and the publisher asserts that over 50% are published for the first time in this book. Here you will find biographies of the well know photographers as well the much lesser know individuals who played important roles in the development of photography in Japan. This book will, no doubt, become a cornerstone in the research/reference library of those interested in photography in Meiji era Japan. It is a companion book to "Old Japanese Photographs Collector's Data Guide" by Bennett which was also released in November 2006. That book provides a wealth of detailed information on specific Japanese souvenir albums and attributing photographs to key studios. That book also provides a vast amount of information on attributing Japan related stereoviews to photographs/publishers. These two books are indispensable companions. ISBN: 0804836337.

Available, Purchase Here

Note 2.
Bennett, Terry:
Early Japanese Images, Rutland, Vermont, Charles E. Tuttle Company, 1996, black cloth, dust jacket, 8vo (7 3/4 in x 10 1/2 in), 138+ photographs, bibliography, appendix of photographic terms, listing of 1,000 early photographs showing title, number and in most cases attributed to a specific photographer, 168 pp. Covers the early days of photography in Japan from 1853, when Commodore Perry visited, to the end of the Meiji era in 1912. Includes commentary and examples of the work of Eliphalet Brown, Jr., Felice Beato, Baron Raimund von Stillfried-Rateniz, Adolfo Farsari, Renjo Shimooka, Hikoma Ueno, Kimbei Kusakabe, Kozaburo Tamamura, Kazumasa Ogawa, Kuichi Uchida. The listing of early Japanese photographs is an invaluable resource in identifying 19th century photographs which often had a caption and number but no indication of the photographer. ISBN: 0804820295 (hardback), ISBN: 0804820333 (softback)

Note 3.
Bennett, Terry
Cortazzi, Hugh:
Japan: Caught in Time, New York, 1995, Weatherhill, black cloth, 159 pp. Extensive coverage of 122 color and black and white photographs. These photographs are in the collection of a Russian botanist (Grigoryev) whose travels took him to Japan in 1879. Many of the photographs are attributed to the Western and Japanese photographers including von Stillfried, Usui, Suzuki, Beato. Photographs are presented in sections as follows: The Treaty Ports: Yokohama and Hakodate, Street Life, Domestic Life, Costumes and Portraits, Farming and Handicrafts and Buddhist Temples and Shinto Shrines. A excellent resource. In addition to the photographs, the book provides historical background on Japan and history of photography in early Japan.

Note 4.
The Nagasaki University has a database which contains hundreds of old Japanese photographs. To visit the database, click here.

Note 5a.
Worswick, Clark
Morris, Jan (Introduction):
Japan: Photographs 1854-1905, New York, 1979, A Pennwick/Knopf, black cloth, large 8vo (11 1/4 x 9 1/4 in), oblong format, 117 full page plates, introductory essay by Jan Morris, notes, bibliography, sources of pictures, 151 pp. An excellent photographic reference which covers the most of the Japanese photographers/photographic work during the period from 1854-1905. Photographs are the highlight of this book. There are 117+ plates (all full page, man reproduced in color) reproducing albumen photographs, collotypes, and stereoscopic prints from this period. Several of the items reproduced were hand colored or tinted. Most plates contain a single photograph but a few have two. Includes the works of Kusakabe Kimbei, Isshin Ogawa, (aka, Kazuma/Kazumasa Ogawa), K. Tamamura, Baron von Stillfried, A. Le Bas, Felix Beato, Herbert Ponting, H.C. White and Farsari. Includes technical descriptions of photographic processes in use and an index of commercial and amateur photographers in Japan. (Also issued in softcover format).

Note 5b.
Japan Photographers Association
Dower, John W. (Introduction):
A Century of Japanese Photography, New York, Pantheon Books, 1980, horizontal 8vo, black cloth with dark black lettering on front board and silver lettering on the spine, first American edition of book previously published (Nihon Shashin Shi, 1840-1945) in Japan, 514 halftone illustrations, some in color, photo illustrated slip case, 385 pp. The illustrations all have captions generally range from one to four images per page. A few of the images are in color. The illustrations include an early and seldom seen black and white photographic image of the "Shureinomon gate in Okinawa" by Mitsumara Riso, 1901 (illustration 105). ISBN 0394512324
Available, Purchase Here

Note 6.
Beato, Felice (Photographs)
Von Stillfried, Baron Raimund (Photographs)
Edel, Chantal (Introduction)
Coverdale, Linda (Translator)
Once Upon a Time. Visions of Old Japan From the Photos of Beato and Stillfried and the Words of Pierre Loti, 1986, Friendly Press, first English language edition, 112 pp. Photographs by Felice Beato and Baron Raimund von Stillfried and the words of Pierre Loti. Introduction by Chantal Edel. Translated by Linda Coverdale. Originally published in French by Les Editions Arthaud, Paris, 1984. Reproductions of 72 photographs (most color) from the collection of the Societe de Geographie in Paris. While most of the photographs have numbers in white on the image, only a few have contain descriptive captions on the image. Descriptive captions are provided by Chantal Edel and the photographs are attributed to Felice Beato or Baron von Stillfried). Several of the plates span from one page to the adjoining page. Excellent resource on these high quality hand colored albumen souvenir photographs produced in Japan during the late 1800s. Contains the famous Felice Beato "Execution" photograph. ISBN 0914919075 (apparently same for 1st French edition as well as this US edition.
Available, Purchase Here

Note 7.
Tucker, Anne Wikes
Friis-Hansen, Dana
Ryuichi, Kaneko
Joe, Takeba:
The History of Japanese Photography, New Haven, CT, and London, Yale University Press in association with The Houston Museum of Fine, 2003, red cloth with black lettering on spine, dust jacket, 4to (12 x 9 3/4 in), 405 pp. A comprehensive and profusely illustrated (200+ color and black and white plates and numerous text illustrations) survey of 150 years of photography in Japan. Includes essays by Iizawa Kotaro and Kinoshita Naoyuki. Traces the development of photography in Japan starting in the 1850s. The history of Japanese photography is placed in the context of the interaction of Japanese and Western photographers and other art forms. The best illustrated and document review of Japanese photography I have read. I consider this the keystone of a Meiji era photography reference library. ISBN: 0300099258. Other edition. London edition, 432 pp.
Available, Purchase Here

Note 8.
Tokyo Metropolitan Museum of Photography:
The Advent of Photography in Japan, published jointly by the Tokyo Metropolitan Museum of Photography, Tokyo and the Hakodate Museum of Art, Hokkaido, 1997, 184 pages, soft covers in thick wraps (no hardcover issued), 4to (9 x 11 3/4 in). This book served as a guide for exhibits in Tokyo and Hakodate by the same title held in 1997. Bilingual text in English (some) and Japanese (all). All images that are reproduced in the book have Japanese and English descriptive titles. Most, but not all, of the text has an English version of the Japanese text. This book is an exceptional study of early photography in Japan. It is divided into three sections: 1) between the arrival of the camera obscura and the daguerreotype; 2) the arrival of photography in Japan; and finally 3) works during the 1860s-70s by three key artists/photographers (Renjo Shimooka, Kakoku Shima, and Matsusaburo Yokoyama). The book is beautifully printed and generously illustrated with 228 numbered and titled color images. Many of the numbers have sub-numbers so the total number of images is approximately 280+. Images include: daguerreotypes, albumen photographs, early cameras, photographic chemical kits, artwork pertaining to early photography, the camera obsucra and paintings to be viewed with a camera obscura. A excellent book containing seldom seen images. Perhaps one of the best illustrated and most comprehensive books on early Japanese photography.

Note 9.
March, Philipp (editor)
Delank, Claudia (editor):
The Adventure of Japanese Photography, 1860-1890, Heidelberg, Kehrer Verlag, 2002, 4to, pictorial boards, 128 pp. The book contains 22 pages of English text and foodnotes followed by 90 full page plates reproducing hand colored albumen photographs. Each plate is footnoted and, where known, the photographer given. The book covers a wide range of photographs including rare albumen photographs of flowers.

Note 10.
Sharf, Frederic A.
Dobson, Sebastian
Morse, Anne Nishimura:
Art and Artifice, Japanese Photographs of the Meiji Era, Boston, Museum of Fine Art, 2004, horizontal 8vo (8 1/4 x 10 1/4 in), blue cloth with paste on title and accompanying decorated slipcase with paste on title (hardback version), blue string page marker, numerous plates and text illustrations - most in color, 95 pp. The book is constructed to resemble a 19th century Japan tourist photograph/collotype album. Starts with a discussion by Sharf on tourist travel to Japan which began flourishing in the 1870s and 1880s. His focus is on Yokohama which was the traveler's point of arrival. Next Sebastian Dobson discusses the "Yokohama Shashin" (Yokohama photographs) trade. Discussed in this section are noted photographers such as Felice Beato, Baron Raimund von Stillfried-Ratenicz, Uchida Kuichi, Kusakabe Kimbei, Adolfo Farsari (Sargent, Farsari and Company), Tong Cheong, the Japan Photographic Association (Farsari & Kozaburo Tamamura partnership), David Welsh (Yokohama Photographic Company) and Kozaburo Tamamura. A discussion by Anne N. Morse considers the ("meisho-e" - famous scenic places) genre of images captured in Meiji era photographs and art. These sections are followed by an exceptional section with reproductions of 39 color plates. In a list that follows technical information (where know) for each plate is provided (photographer, subject of image, date, type of print and size in cm). Issued in softcover also. ISBN: 0-87846-683-5 (slipcased hardcover) and 0-87846-682-7 (softcover - published 2003). The softcover version has two Japanese style ornamental string ties. These are not found on the hardcover version.
Available, Slipcased Hardcover Version or Softcover, Purchase Here

Note 11.
Rosenberg, Gert:
Wilhelm Burger, Ein Welt-und Forschungsreisender mit der Kamera, 1844-1920, Wien and Munchen, Christian Brandstatter, German language, 1984, 4to, hardbound, illustrated dust jacket, 229 illustrations black and white duotone (halftone), 192 pp. Pages 44-177 contain plates reproducing W. Burger's photographs. Each plate contains one or more images and descriptive titles in German. The book contains 57 plates (pages 88-144) showing 64 different images taken by Burger while he was in Japan. The book contains numerous halftone text illustrations. Included in this book is the famous "Hinrichtungsplatz in Jedo" image showing the severed head of a criminal placed on public display. The book is an excellent resource for Burger's style of photography and composition of images. Burger arrived in Japan in September of 1869 with the Austria-Hungary diplomatic mission and stayed until March 1870 when he returned to Austria. During this short period he created a excellent portfolio of Japanese images. This book also contains images Burger took on the expedition prior to arrival in Japan as well as after. There are numerous images of Siam (Thailand) and China (including Hong Kong) and Vietnam as well as other examples of Burger's work. Wilhelm Burger was a noted official "Expedition Photographer." The major expeditions traced in this book are the K.K. Mission nach Ost-Asien und South America (Sept 1868-Mar 1870) which included stops in Gibraltar (Nov 1868), Singapore/Borneo (Apr 1869), Siam (April-May 1869), Vietnam (May 1869), China (Jun-Sep 1869), Japan (Nagasaki, Yokohama, Osaka, Kamakura, Tokio - 27 Sep 1869-Mar 1870) the Austro-Hungarian North Pole Expedition (Jun 1872-1874) and expeditions to Samothrace (1876) and Asia Minor (1881). Rosenberg notes that Burger produced a series of "Stereophotographhien" on his return to Europe from the Asian expedition (page 30). ISBN 3854471076.
Available, Purchase Here

Note 12.
Various Authors:
Image, Journal of Photography and Motion Pictures of the International Museum of Photography at George Eastman House, Volume 34, Nos 1-2, Rochester, NY, 1991, 4to, softcover, 62 pp.

a. The J. B. Millet Company's Japan: Described and Illustrated by Denise Bethel, pages 3-15. An excellent and seldom seen discussion regarding these books. The author's focus is on the Mikado edition, a deluxe edition of the set. Contains an extensive discussion of Kazumasa (Isshin) Ogawa.

b. The Far East, A Magazine on the Orient for European Eyes, by Stephen White, pages 39-47. The only article I am aware of that deals with Reddie Black's Far East. This monthly photograph illustrated (tipped in albumen photos) magazine was published between 1870 and 1878. The publication is rare and so are detailed discussions of it.

Available, Purchase Here

Note 13.
Winkel, Margarita:
Souvenirs from Japan, Japanese photography at the turn of the century, London, Bamboo Publishing Ltd, 1991, oblong 8vo (8 1/2 x 9 3/4 in - 22.5 x 26 cm), 171 pictures (including front and back cover - approximately 1/3 in color), 160 pp. Preface by Professor Willem R. van Gulik. A comprehensive illustrated review of photography in Japan in the 19th century. The author discusses various facets of photography in 19th century Japan (methods, noted photographers & subjects) with a focus on how these were applied in the "Souvenir" photographs produced for sale to foreigners and export out of Japan. The discussion is supplemented with 171 reproductions of these "albumen" photographs (many of which were hand colored) from the renowned collection of R. Shilling. ISBN: 1870076583 (paperback) and 1870076184 (cloth).

Note 14.
Palmquist, Peter E. (editor)
Erickson, Bruce T. (article on E. Brown):
The Daguerreian Annual, 1990, Official Yearbook of the Daguerreian Society, Eureka, California, The Daguerreian Society, 1990, 4to, soft covers, edition limited to 1,000 copies, numerous black and white illustrations, 202 pp. Eliphalet M. Brown, Jr., An Early Expedition Photographer by Bruce T. Erickson, pages 145-156. Probably the only extensive discussion of Brown's professional life as an artist, daguerreotypist and member of the Perry Expedition to Japan. The article discusses the very few original daguerreotypes taken by Brown during the Expedition which are confirmed to still be in existence. An excellent resource with much information on Eliphalet M. Brown and his work that has not been previously reported.
Available, Purchase Here.

Note 15.
Crombie, Isobel
Gartlan, Luke (essay):
Shashin: Nineteenth Century Japanese Studio Photography, Melbourne, National Gallery of Victoria, 2004, oblong 8vo, paper wraps, 20 numbered pages of text with 8 illustrations followed by 49 pages each containing a single numbered plate, 51 plates (2 before the text and 49 numbered plates after the text) of photographs in color where the original was colored. This is the exhibition catalogue for an exhibition held between February 8, 2005 and May 22, 2005 at the National Gallery of Victoria. The book is organized into three sections. First are the the "Bijin-Ga - Pictures of Beautiful Women" photographs (plates 1 ~ 19). Next are the photographs of samurai, sumo wrestlers and priests (plates 20 ~ 29). The final section contains photographs of customs and costumes (plates 30 ~ 49). Above each numbered plate is the technical information on the photograph which includes the photographer where that has been determined. Below each plate is a discussion of the image in the photograph. A well executed and illustrated study of studio photography for souvenir photography trade of the late 19th century in Japan. To see the cover, click here.

Note 16.
Bennett, Terry:
Old Japan Catalogue, London, 12mo/large 8vo, paper wraps. Each catalogue carries a sequential number. The subtitles varied over the years and include "Antiquarian Books" (No. 6, 1983), "Photographers" (No. 8), "Photographs, Prints, Books, and Manuscripts" (No. 9) and "Old and Rare Photographs" (No. 33, 2005). The company has been in business since 1982 and publishes a catalogue approximately every year. The earliest catalogue I have seen is No. 6 (1983). Old Japan is the preeminent dealer in old Japanese photographs. Each catalogue generally presents 100+ choice items from the firm's stock. The items are well illustrated and presented with in depth discussion. In recent years the emphasis has been on albumen photographs (individually, in groups and in albums). Attribution of these images to particular photographers is complicated and the descriptions give very useful and important information in this regards. The catalogues are an invaluable reference resource for those interested in these items. The focus is on images from the 1860's through the first two decades of the 20th century. Material is presented in numbered lots. Most catalogues do not carry the price in the text. In that case the lot prices are provided by means of an insert or price on request on extremely rare items. Unfortunately, the inserts are often missing when catalogues are obtained in the after-market. Earlier catalogues do not carry dates in the text of the catalogue but it no doubt was included with the price insert. The Old Japan web site is here and I highly recommend it.

Note 17.
Boyd, Torin
Izakura, Naomi:
Portraits in Sepia from the Japanese carte de visite collection of Torin Boyd and Naomi Izakura (Sepia: Iro no Shozo), Tokyo, Asahi Sonorama in conjunction with the JCII Camera Museum, 4to, October 2000, 328 pp. Photography and photographers in Japan from the late 1840s through the end of the Meiji era (1912). Over 200 items pictured. Text in Japanese and English. Comprehensive index with biographical information on over 1,000 Japanese and non-Japanese photographers. Bound in at the back is a color insert with examples to use in identifying the various types of prints (salted paper print, albumen print, printing out paper - collodion or gelatin, matte collodian printing out paper with gold tint, gelatin developing out of paper, and collotype) (ISBN 4257035986)

Note 18.
Morse, E.S.
Ohara, Tetsuo (Editor):
Peabody Museum of Salem, E.S. Morse Collection/Photography, Tokyo, Shogakukan, 4to (9 x 12 in), 1983, cloth, Japanese text, one page "Message" in English, illustrated dust jacket, 300 illustrations/figures with captions in Japanese and English, 211 pp. Numerous (14) contributing authors listed in addition to the editor. E.S. Morse arrived in Japan in June of 1877 and remained there for two years. Morse was a zoologist and his primary reason for going to Japan was the search for mollusks and brachiopods. While in Japan he amassed huge collections of shells and pottery. He also collected photographs and those are the subject of this collection housed in the Peabody Museum of Salem. In addition to his initial two year stay, Morse returned to Japan at least two more times for short visits. The photographs reproduced in this book span the period from the 1870s through the 1910s with the bulk dated to ca. 1880-1890. The images are primarily of Japanese engaged in the everyday activities. Very few of the images are of scenery or the sites normally visited by the tourist. When a photograph was hand colored, it is reproduced in color in the book. The book contains wonderful color reproductions of images from glass slides (lantern slides) and the majority of the images (color and black and white) appear to have be reproduced from that format. A strong focus of Morse's attention is people engaged in arts and crafts. Illustrative of this are two black and white photographs of weaving on Okinawa which are dated ca. 1900. To see the cover, click here. ISBN 4095630116
Available, Purchase Here.

Note 19.
Banta, Melissa (editor)
Taylor, Susan (editor):
A Timely Encounter, Nineteenth-Century Photographs of Japan, Cambridge, Mass, published by the Peabody Museum Press for the Wellesley College Museum, 1988, 8vo, paper wraps, 71 pp. This is an exhibition catalogue for "An exhibition of photographs from the collection of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology and the Wellesley College Museum." The catalogue reproduces 62 items (frontispiece plus 61 numbered images) with most being photographs, some in color. Many of the photographs are attributed to Stillfried and Anderson Co. based upon the studio imprint. The images cover the period from the 1850s to through the 1880s. ISBN: 0873658108. To see the cover, click, here.
Available, Purchase Here.

Note 20.
Edel, Chantal:
Fin de Siecle, Japon, France, Edition Arthaud, 2000, 4to, hard covers, numerous color reproductions of 19th century colored albumen photographs, text in French, 112 pp. Photographs of Japan at the end of the 19th century. This book reproduces fine quality albumen photographs of Japan held by the Societe de Geographie, Paris. Over 70 different albumen photographs are presented and the majority are attributed to Felice Beato or Baron Raimund von Stillfried. ISBN: 2700312805. To see the cover, click, here.

Note 21.
F. Beato Bakumatsu Nihon Shashin-shu, Yokohama, Yokohama Kaiko Shiryokan (Yokohama Archives of History), 1987, 8vo, text in Japanese English captions for almost all illustrations, stiff wraps, 199 pp. The book is composed of two parts. The major portion, pages 1-168, deals with F. Beato's photographic work in Japan. This portion contains 237 illustrations which primarily reproduce Beato's photographs. Four of the photographs are reproduced in color and some foldout. There are also two maps in color on a foldout page (front and back). The second part (pages 169-199) deals with other photographers and individuals to include William Saunders, Charles Parker, Charles Wirgman, Raimund Stillfried, K. Tamamura and others. This portion of the book is illustrated with 52 small images which are placed at the top of each page. Here you find reproductions of photographs, advertisements and illustrations from periodicals. At least two editions were published, both of these in 1987.

Note 22.
Felice Beato in Japan: Photographien Zum Ende Der Feudalzeit 1863-1873, Heidelbert, Edition Braus, 1991, 4to, text in German, paper wraps, 207 pp. Approximately 140 illustrations from Beato's photographs. A catalogue of a 1991 German exhibition of Beato's work.

Note 23.
For a comprehensive illustrated discussion of T. Enami's life and work, visit Rob Oechsle's outstanding web site at T-Enami.org. While Enami's work is found in the large albumen photographs, it is in the small format image (like stereoviews) where he concentrated his efforts.

Note 24.
Fulton, Marianne
Stapp, William F.
Condax, Philip L.:
Souvenirs of Asia: Photography in the Far East, 1840-1920, published in Volume 37, Nos. 3-4 (Fall/Winter, 1994) of Image, the Journal of Photography and Motion Pictures of George Eastman House, New York, 1994, 8vo, stiff wraps, 62 pp. This issue serves as a catalogue for an exhibition of the same name by the George Eastman House, International Museum of Photography and Film, held at Photokina 1994 in Cologne, Germany. The four major sections in this issue are: Section 1. "Souvenirs of Asia, Photography in the Far East (1840-1920)" by William F. Stapp (pages 2-53 with 28 figures/illustrations of which 4 are in color). This section is broken into the following three major parts: a - India (pages 4-16), b - China and Southeast Asia (pages 16-23) and c - Japan (pages 23-34). These parts are opened with and Introduction (page 1) by Marianne Fulton and followed by Endnotes (pages 35-38), Biographies of Photographers (pages 39-44) and an Exhibition Checklist (pages 45-53); Section 2. "From the Collections" by Philip L. Condax (pages 54-58 with five figures in text); Section 3 "Recent Acquisitions, Daido Moriyama" (pages 58-60 with 3 figures), Daido Moriyama Chronology (page 61), and Section 4. "Museum Staff" (page 62). The checklist has a total of 110 items on exhibit and provides details on each of them. The "From the Collections" portion of the issued deals with the equipment, materials and processes used to produce photographic images. To see the front cover, click here.

Note 25.
Ozawa Takeshi:
Bakumatsu: Shashin no jidai, Tokyo, Chikuma Shobo, 1994, large 8vo (8 1/2 x 11 3/4 in), hard covers, illustrated dust jacket, 312 numbered images in color and black and white on plates and as text illustrations, all text in Japanese, 308 pp. This book is an exceptionally well illustrated history of photography in Japan during the closing years of the Tokugawa era (1850s-1860s). Many of the plates span two adjoining pages and four plates fold out to present panoramic photographs. The book contains an appendix which is a facsimile of an early (1854) Japanese book on the technical aspects of photography. Many early, rare and seldom seen photographs are reproduced. This includes one of the daguerreotypes taken by E. Brown in Japan during the Perry Expedition to Japan (1853-4). ISBN: 4480856528.
Available, Purchase Here.

Note 26.
Gartlan, Luke (Guest Editor):
History of Photography, Volume 33, Number 2, issue titled Photography in Nineteenth-Century Japan, United Kingdom, May 2009, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 4to, color and black and white text illustrations, illustrated stiff wraps, numbered pages 109-232. This volume is a compendium of 7 articles/essays on photography in 19th century Japan. They deal with 1) photography during Prussian Expedition to Japan, 1860-61, by Sebastian Dobson (pages 112-131), 2) photographic studio practices reflected in the "Tomishige Archive" by Karen Fraser (pages 132-144), 3) the role of Samuel Cocking in Japanese photography by Luke Gartlan (pages 145-164), 4) photographs of the Emperor and Imperial family by Mikiko Hirayama (pages 165-184), 5) photographs of Ogasawara Islands during the Japanese Expedition there in 1875-76 by David R. Odo (pages 185-208), 6) Kusababe Kimbei's photographs with images of women by Mio Wakita (pages 209-223) and 7) a bibliography for the period 2000-2008 by Sebastian Dobson and Luke Gartlan (pages 224-232). These articles are introduced by an editorial by Luke Gartlan (pages 109-11). Samuel Cocking was an English entrepreneur who arrived in Japan in early 1869. He was an amateur photographer and a part of his business included the import, manufacture and sale of photographic supplies and equipment. In his article Gartlan traces Cockings key role in the development of photography in 19th century Japan. To see the front cover here. ISBN: 03087298(2009)33:2;1R

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