The Far East



Black, John Reddie
Moser, Michael (Photographs)
von Stillfried, Baron (Photographs):

The Far East:

-- An Illustrated Fortnightly Newspaper (May 1870 - May 1873), Yokohama, 4to, bi-weekley.

-- A Monthly Illustrated Journal (Jul 1873 - Jun 1875), Yokohama & Tokyo, 4to, monthly.

-- Monthly Journal, Illustrated with Photographs (Jul 1876 - Dec 1878), Tokyo, Shanghai & Hong Kong, 4to, monthly.

All volumes with tipped in albumen photographs.

  • 1st Series, Volume I-VII. The Far East (Yokohama & Tokyo):
    • Vol. I. An Illustrated Fortnightly Newspaper (May 30, 1870 to May 16, 1871)
    • Vol. II. An Illustrated Fortnightly Newspaper (Jun 1, 1871 to May 16, 1872)
    • Vol. III. An Illustrated Fortnightly Newspaper (Jun 1, 1872 to May 17, 1873)

    • Vol. IV. A Monthly Illustrated Journal (Jul 1, 1873 to Dec 1, 1873)
    • Vol. V. A Monthly Illustrated Journal (Jan 1, 1874 to Jun 1874)
    • Vol. VI. A Monthly Illustrated Journal (Jul 31, 1874 to Jun 30, 1875)
    • Vol VII. A Monthly Illustrated Journal (a partial volume with only four - perhaps fewer - issues, Jul 1875 - Oct 1875).

  • 2nd Series (New Series). The Far East (Tokyo, Shanghai & Hong Kong):
    • Vol I. A Monthly Journal, Illustrated with Photographs (Jul - Dec 1876)
    • Vol II. A Monthly Journal, Illustrated with Photographs (Jan - Jun 1877)
    • Vol III. A Monthly Journal, Illustrated with Photographs (Jul - Dec 1877)
    • Vol IV. A Monthly Journal, Illustrated with Photographs (Jan - Jun 1878)
    • Vol V. A Monthly Journal, Illustrated with Photographs (July - Nov 1878).

Ambiguity Regarding The Gap Between the First and Second (New) Series. Wenckstern describes the publication this way:

The Far East. An, at first fortnightly, since 1873 monthly Journal, edited by J.R. Black, illustrated with numerous photographs, published simultaneously in Tokio, Shanghai and Hongkong, 4to.

1st series, vol. I-VII and a few numbers of vol. VIII [May 1870 till October 1875].

2nd series, vol I [July - Dec, 1876] 154 pp ($7.00) -- vol II [Jan - June 1877] 138 pp ($6.00) -- vol III [July - Dec, 1877] 140 pp ($6.00) -- vol IV [Jan - June, 1878] -- vol V [July-Dec, 1873(8)] Discontinued.

As noted below, a facsimile edition has been published in Japan and it is advertised to contain the first seven volumes of the first series.

I believe that Volume VII contained only four (and perhaps less) issues (July - October 1875). Wenckstern's statement regarding volume VIII appears to be an error. What he probably should have said was "vol I-VI and a few numbers of vol VII [May 1870 til October 1875"]."

In the Introduction to volume 1 of the New Series, which started in 1876, Black states:

In this shape [referring to the status of a monthly publication] it come out until October 1875; when circumstances over which the proprietor had no control caused a delay, which illness subsequently extended into a temporary cessation of the publication.

The year from July 1875 to June 1876, therefore, forms a gap in the regularity of the delivery. The few numbers that were published, the proprietor takes no count of, and makes no charge for. (The Far East, New Series, Volume 1, introduction, at page ii).

The first seven volumes of the first series, edited by Tokoro Mitsuo, were reproduced by the Yushodo Press Co., Tokyo in 1999 (30 mm) (ISBN 4-8419-0265-1). These volumes cover the period of May 1870 - August 1875 and are said to contain 580 photographs and a total of 1,932 pages. Examples of these books are posted here. The set is offered for 168,000 yen (ca US $1600.00 - 12/2004).

Size Per Issue. As a fortnightly newspaper (one issue every two weeks) the size is said to average between 8-12 pages per issue. When it became a monthly, the size was approximately 30-40 pages per issue. The full page plates were not numbered. However, they are included in the total page count in these average figures per issue.

Background on John Reddie Black.

John R. Black, a Scott, had been living in Australia but when his business failed, he decided to return to England. He stopped in Japan on the trip to England and his plans changed radically. Exactly when he arrived in Japan is uncertain. However, from 1864 through his death in 1880 he was one of the most important, innovative and controversial foreign journalists and publishers in Japan. He journalistic and publishing efforts expanded into areas where others would not or could not venture. It is well established that by 1864 Black was active in the newspaper business in Yokohama and associated with the Japan Herald. In October of 1867 he began publication of the Japan Gazette, a daily paper, as well as the Japan Gazette Fortnightly. In 1870 he ceased his editorial role with the Japan Gazette to start the publication of The Far East. Through The Far East Black sought to create a better understanding and appreciation of Japan, and the Far East also, in the Western World, not just the foreign community then residing in Japan. In April of 1872 he began publication of the Nisshin Shin Jishi (Daily News Journal) which was published in the Japanese language (actually Chinese characters) and intended to present information on the outside world to the Japanese. This paper was published from an office in the Tsukiji foreign settlement area in Tokyo.

Black was outspoken and this included voicing political positions. This often brought him into conflict with the Meiji government which had just been restored to power. His actives were rather troublesome for the government. For a time the Japanese government actually hired him but this tactic soon failed. He was hired under contact in January 1875 as a foreign adviser. This brought an end to his role in the Nisshin Shin Jishi. In June of 1875 the Japanese Government issued regulations that required that only Japanese could publish or own Japanese newspapers and the very next month his contract with the government was terminated. While the regulations did not seem to impact his English language publication, The Far East, I doubt it was a coincidence that publication ceased abruptly in October of 1875. One commentator on The Far East attributes the suspension of publication to Black's ill health with no mention of the government ban. Stephen White (see note 11b, below) states that John Black became ill in 1875 (no month specified) and publication was suspended for a year and publication began again in July of 1876 with the "new series." Based upon Black's comments in the "Introduction" of Volume 1 of the New Series (quoted above), I believe that the circumstance referred to by Black as "over which the proprietor had no control" were the rapidly growing Japanese opposition to foreign influence in the Japanese print media (both Japanese language and English language) in Japan. That situation was compounded by his failing health.

In January of 1876 Black openly defied the government regulations by presenting himself as the editor-in-chief of an newly established and unlicensed Japanese paper Bankoku Shimbun (International News) to be published in Tsukiji. He was fined by the Japanese Government for this activity. Further, the British Minister, Sir Harry Parkes, reinforced the Japanese position by making it a criminal offense for British subjects residing in Japan to publish Japanese language newspapers in the country. This was necessary because under treaty provisions at the time, the Japanese Government did not have criminal jurisdiction over British subjects in Japan.

Black traveled to Shanghai in early 1876. I believe that the he resided in China continuously until he returned to Japan in the Spring of 1879 because of failing health. The New Series was printed in Shanghai but indicates that it was "Published Simultaneously in Tokio, Japan, Shanghai, China, and in Hongkong." I believe that if Black went to Japan at all during this period (early 1876 - Spring 1879), it would have been brief trips and his residence remained in Shanghai. Black died in Japan at the age of 53 in June of 1880 and is buried at the Foreigners Cemetery in Yokohama. His classic two volume work, Young Japan, Yokohama and Yedo, A Narrative of the Settlement and the City, from the Signing of the Treaties in 1858 to the Close of the Year 1879, With A Glance at the Progress of Japan During Period of Twenty-One Years, was published after his death between 1880 and 1881. In the Preface to this book set Black cited his reflection on his works published in The Far East as the inspiration for the book. He put it in these terms (speaking in the third party):

As he approached convalescence, he was scanning over the pages of the Far East, and came, at the close of the sixth volume, upon a 'Retrospective,' written in June, 1875, of all the events that had been recorded in the pages of the magazine since its establishment in 1870. It interested him so much, and, although he had written it, mentioned so many circumstances in the progress of Japan within that short period, which had passed from his mind, that he thought it was worth republishing in pamphlet form.... (Preface, Volume 1, Young Japan)

Complexity of Publishing with Albumen Photograph Illustrations. Black's venture into the photographically illustrated journal The Far East was a very ambitious enterprise. The publication raised a unique requirement to obtain large quantities of albumen photographs which would be tipped in issue by issue. The illustrations were actual photographs and not photo-mechanically printed images. This was indeed a daunting undertaking. At this time the albumen photograph business in Japan was still in infancy. It would be 10-15 years before that industry was robust and rapidly expanding to meet the requirements of the "tourist" trade for such images.

Black was far ahead in this area. While exact quantities published are unknown, Stephen White estimates that at its height of demand the production did not exceed 1500 copies a month. According to White (footnote 11b, below) during it's eight years of publication almost 1,000 photographs accompanied the articles in the publication. This would average 10.4 per issue. I have confirmed that the 12 issues from July 1876 ~ June 1877 (New Series, Volume 1 and 2) contained a total of 81 tipped in albumen photographs which is an average of 6.75 per issue. I suspect the issues from the 1st Series averaged more per issue than those in the New Series. Using an average production of 1,000 issues per month/run and 1,000 photographs in the 8 years of production, you reach an amazing grand total 1,000,000 albumen photographs actually being procured and tipped to page during the life of the journal. This far surpasses the massive undertaking required to produce the Brinkley's Japan and Illustrated sets published in 1897-8. For information on the hand colored albumen photographs in that set, click here.


Plate 90-1 (June 16, 1871) and Plate 90-2 (Feb. 16, 1871)

The Far East

Published Commentary Regarding The Far East.

In his book, Early Japanese Images, Terry Bennett notes:

     Mention should be made of the Far East, originally a fortnightly newspaper and later a monthly illustrated with original photographs, which ran from May 1870 until December 1878. The editor and publisher was a Yokohama journalist, John Reddie Black. With around 750 photographs, mainly of Japan, the Far East provided important visual documentation of the country's modernization. But copies of the Far East are almost as rare as Westfield's The Japanese: Their Manners and Customs, the first book to contain original photographs of Japan (See Stephen White's article, Note 11b, below).

     Many of the photographs in the Far East are of very high quality but attributing the photographers is difficult. That publication mentions an unnamed Japanese photographer, an Austrian, who was probably Baron Raimund von Stillfried and Michael Moser, another Austrian, who cam to Japan in 1869 as an assistant to the Austrian photographer Wilhelm Berger (1844-920).

     In his book Wilhelm Burger Gert Rosenberg states that Moser, the son of a farm worker, was only fifteen when Burger invited him on the expedition. Moser stayed on in Japan and photographed for the Japan Gazette, the Far East, and interestingly, the Japanese Government. (Terry Bennett, Early Japanese Images, at page 36)

Terry Bennett, in Japan Caught in Time, again discussed the role of Moser in taking photographs for The Far East and noted:

He actually took many of the photographs which appeared in the magazine The Far East which started in Yokohama in 1870 and continued until 1878. It employed actual mounted photographs. Copies of the magazine are now extremely rare (19). (at page 34).

The footnote (19) in this book is a reference to the Stephen White article regarding The Far East.


Publications Relating to Japan During the Period from 1860-1882 with Tipped in Albumen Photographs. The practice of illustrating books or articles with albumen photographs during this time period was very limited. As a general rule at this date, illustrations would be created by one of the various engraving techniques (wood, steel etc), lithography or woodblock processes. Publications at this time with actual tipped in photographs are a striking exception to the norm. Below is a listing of the publications using tipped in albumen photographs that I am aware of during this period (ie 1800 through the early 1880s).

  • 1860, Westfield, T.C. (Thomas Clark), The Japanese, Their Manners and Customs with an Account of the General Characteristics of the Country, its Manufactures and Natural Productions: Originally Delivered as a Lecture, at the Marylebone Literary and Scientific Institution. This book contained 6 tipped in stereograph photographs. More information here.

  • 1864, Wolff, Fr., Album von Ost-Asien Düsseldorf und Mönchen-Gladbach, Ad. Spaarmann, 1864, large 4to, 30 hand color photographic plates, 60 pp (not all photographs are of Japan. here.

  • 1868, Felice A. Beato, Native Types and Views of Japan, Photographic Views of Japan with Historical and Descriptive Notes, Compiled from Authentic Sources, and Personal Observations During a Residence of Several Years (with letterpress by James W. Murray and Native Types, Yokohama, 1868. A two volume set. Each volume contains approximately 100 tipped in albumen photographs. More information here.

  • 1868, Felice A. Beato, Photographic Images and Customs of Japan, 1868, 4to. More information here.

  • 1870-1878, John Reddie Black, The Far East, a periodical first published in Japan and later Hong Kong. More information here.

  • 1873, Mittheilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Natur-Und Volkerkunde Ostasien's. Herausgegeben von dem Vorstande, Part 2 (July 1873) and Part 4 (January 1874) have been confirmed with tipped in albumen photographs. These are the only issues from Part 1 to 6 with tipped in albumen photographs. Is is likely that other issues of the periodical contained tipped to page or plate albumen photographs. For more information on Part 2 and Part 4, click here.

  • ca 1877, Stillfried & Andersen, Views and Costumes of Japan, photographic book said to contain 96 albumen photographs taken by Stillfried and Beato. Also reported with 45 albumen photographs. More information here.

  • ca 1877, H.H. Bennett, Kilbourn City, Wisconsin, A Summer in Japan. A series of 26 sterographs reproducing images taken by William H. Metcalf when he visited Japan in 1876 or 1877. Albumen photograph stereoviews. Not sold in book form. For more information, click here.

  • 1878, Tarumatsu Wada (editor & publisher), Tokaido Gojusan Tsugi. Views of the 53 stages of the Tokaido as depicted in Hiroshige prints on 28 pages of albumen photographs. More information here.

  • 1879, various authors, Sashin Shimbun. Illustrated by albumen photographs. More information here.

  • 1879, Henry von Siebold, Notes on Japanese Archaeology with Especial Reference to the Stone Age by Henry von Siebold, with 12 Photographic Plates, Typography of C. Levy, containing 12 large sepia tone albumen photographs tipped to plate. More information here.

  • 1880, John Milne, Prehistoric Remains, Notes on Stone Implements from Otaru and Hakodate, with a Few General Remarks on the Prehistoric Remains of Japan. An article with 5 tipped in sepia tone albumen photographs. More information here.

  • ca 1880, Baron Raimund von Stillfried, Views and Costumes of China and Japan. An album with 70 handcolored albumen photographs. More information here.

  • 1882, Thomas Van Buren, Labor in Japan - together with - Pottery and Porcelain Industries of Japan Contains eleven (11) hand colored albumen photographs. More information here.

All the books listed above prior to 1880 are very scarce and seldom seen on the market. None of these publications approached the massive use of albumen photographs seen with The Far East.

In The Advent of Photography in Japan, published jointly by the Tokyo Metropolitan Museum of Photography, Tokyo and the Hakodate Museum of Art, Hokkaido, 1997, the front covers of two issues of the 1871 Far East are shown at page 73. This book served as a guide for exhibits in Tokyo and Hakodate by the same name held in 1997. Each of the covers shown has a tipped in photograph of approximately 40% of the page.



Early Japan Related Books Illustrated with Tipped in Albumen Photographs.

Note A. (1862)
Westfield, T.C. (Thomas Clark):
The Japanese, Their Manners and Customs with an Account of the General Characteristics of the Country, its Manufactures and Natural Productions: Originally Delivered as a Lecture, at the Marylebone Literary and Scientific Institution, London, Photographic News Office, 1862, 4to. One of the earliest books to contain actual photographs of Japan. These were in the form of six tipped in stereograph photographs. The photographs are attributed variously to A.A.J. Gower (a British consular official), or professional photographers Rossier (French) or W. B. Woodbury (British).

Note B. (1864)
Wolff, Fr.:
Album von Ost-Asien, Düsseldorf und Mönchen-Gladbach, Ad. Spaarmann, 1864, large 4to, 30 hand color photographic plates, 60 pp. Plates include images of Japan, China, British India, Siam and Luzon.

Note C. (1868)
Beato, Felice A.:
Native Types and Views of Japan, Photographic Views of Japan with Historical and Descriptive Notes, Compiled from Authentic Sources, and Personal Observations During a Residence of Several Years (with letterpress by James W. Murray and Native Types, Yokohama, 1868. A two volume set. Each volume contains approximately 100 tipped in albumen photographs. Opposite each photograph is a printed descriptive caption. The Views volume is entirely black and white while the Types volume contains hand colored albumen photographs. Beato's use of artists to hand color photographs was a pioneering effort which would rapidly expand over the next 30 years. Charles Wirgman, the noted artist and satirist, is said to have colorized many of the photographs for these books. James W. Murray, who provided the descriptive text for the photographs, was a noted author of travel guides for Japan. The albums were very expensive and cost the equivalent of $200 at the time. Many of the images have vignetted edges which was typical of Beato's work. In 1877 Beato sold his studio to Baron Stillfried. You often see Beato's photographs with English titles added to the negative by Stillfried.

Note D. (1868)
Beato, Felice A.:
Photographic Images and Customs of Japan, 1868, 4to. A photographic type album of mounted hand tinted albumen prints that have the information relating to the image attached verso. One photograph is titled "Sentence" and shows a condemned man affixed to a cross.

Note E. (1868)
Stillfried-Ratenicz, Baron Raimund von,
Andersen, H.:
Views and Costumes of Japan, photographic book said to contain 96 albumen photographs taken by Stillfried and Beato. The book is oblong folio (19.5 x 24.4 cm). The majority of the photographs are hand colored and some have the number or titles in the image and some with have titles written in pencil below the image. Mounted on pages front and back. There is a albumen frontispiece titled "Views & Costumes of Japan by Stillfried & Andersen, Yokohama." I have also seen this book described with 45 albumen photographs (23 colored, 22 black and white). While not dated the approximate date of the book can be determined from know facts. The Stillfried and Andersen association ran from 1876 through 1879. That firm took over Beato's stock of photographs in 1877 and they were used extensively in this book. While the publication date is approximated as 1877, the photographs are generally from mid-1860s through the early 1870s when Beato was most active as a photographer.

Note F. (ca1877)
Stillfried-Ratenicz, Baron Raimund von
Andersen, H.:
Views and Costumes of Japan, photographic book said to contain 96 albumen photographs taken by Stillfried and Beato. The book is oblong folio (19.5 x 24.4 cm). The majority of the photographs are hand tinted and some have the number or titles in the image and some with have titles written in pencil below the image. Mounted on pages front and back. There is a albumen frontispiece titled "Views & Costumes of Japan by Stillfried & Andersen, Yokohama." I have also seen this book described with 45 albumen photographs (23 colored, 22 black and white). While not dated the approximate date of the book can be determined from know facts. The Stillfried and Andersen association ran from 1876 - 1879. That firm acquired took over Beato's stock of photographs in 1877 and they were used extensively in this book. While the publication date is approximated as 1877, the photographs are generally from mid-1860s through the early 1870s when Beato was most active as a photographer.

Note G. (1878)
Wada, Tarumatsu (editor & publisher):
Tokaido Gojusan Tsugi, Japan, Tarumatsu Wada, 1878, photographic (albumen) views of the 53 stages of the Tokaido as depicted in Hiroshige prints, 10 x 6 cm. The views are shown in 28 pages of albumen photographs. Wooden boards with title in ink on front and back.

Note H. (1879)
Various authors:
Sashin Shimbun, Zenshin-sha, 1879, contained tipped in albumen photographs. The publication had a short life span of only approximately 10 issues.

Note I. (1879)
von Siebold, Heinrich Philipp (Henry):
Notes on Japanese Archaeology with Especial Reference to the Stone Age by Henry von Siebold, with 12 Photographic Plates, Typography of C. Levy, Yokohama, typography (text) by C. Levy, 1879, 4to (9 1/2 x 13 3/4  in - 24.5 x 36 cm), printed paper covered boards with green cloth spine, preface (I-III), 12 albumen photograph plates, 22 pages of text. The last four pages of the text (pages 19-22) contain tables titled "Explanation of Photographic Table" These tables provide the details regarding of the 285 items pictured and numbered in the plates. The plates are composed of original sepia tone albumen photographs tipped to card stock. The individual photographs can be characterized as large size photographs, approximately 7 1/2 x 9 1/2 inches (or slightly larger) each. Above each photograph is a tipped on heading indicating the "Table" (Plate) number. Each object shown in the photograph is identified by a small manuscript number etched in white adjacent to it. These numbers correspond to the detailed information found in the four pages of "Explanation of Photographic Table" found in the text portion of the book. For more information on this book, including pics of 11 of the 12 photographs, click here.

Note J. (1880)
Milne, John:
Prehistoric Remains, Notes on Stone Implements from Otaru and Hakodate, with a Few General Remarks on the Prehistoric Remains of Japan, Yokohama, extracted from Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, Volume VIII, 1880, 8vo, 5 tipped in sepia tone albumen photographs, one engraved drawing and one folding map, pages 61-87. For more information on this article, click here.

Note K. (ca 1880)
von Stillfried, Baron Raimund:
Views and Costumes of China and Japan, Yokohama, not dated (ca 1880), album with 70 handcolored albumen photographs. The front cover is a montage. Photographs generally measure 7 1/2 x 9 1/2 in and are mounted on heavy card stock and protected by tissue guards. Images fall into the following general areas: Enshima (1), Nagasaki (11), Papenberg (4), Sofkudji (1), Fukuya (1), Tenodji (1), Megane-Bashi (1), Kiyomidzo (2), Choin (1), Honwandji (2), Ketang (2), Karasaki (1), Ishiyama (2), Nari (5), Kanasawa (1), Daibutz (2), Hasse (1), Tomioka (1), Tokaido (1), Mandarin Bluff (1), Kiga (1), Goten (2), Fusiyama (2), Nikko (8) Saruhashi (1), Yumoto (4), Asayama (2) Shua (2), Fukiage (1), Asakuja (1), Odji (1) and Uyendo (2). Baron von Stillfried lived in Japan 1867-1883. While he was an accomplished photographer, he also purchased the stock of Felice Beato in 1877 and the merger of the Beato stock with his work/stock complicates identification of his works.

Note L. (1882)
Van Buren, Thomas B.:
Labor in Japan - together with - Pottery and Porcelain Industries of Japan, Yokohama, Japan, Printed at the Japan Gazette Office, 1882, 8vo (6 1/4 x 9 in - 15.7 x 23.3 cm), 59 pp + 10 pp. Contains eleven (11) hand colored albumen photographs of 1) His Imperial Majesty, Mutsu Hito, Emperor [Meiji], 2) Her Imperial Majesty, Empress Haruko, 3) Ainos, 4) Samurai Warrior, 5) Coolie, 6) Geisha, 7) Vegetable Peddler, 8) Girl in Winter Dress, 9) Coolie in Winter dress, 10) Satsuma Vase, and 11) Kutani Plate. Prepared by Thomas B. Van Buren, the U.S. Consul-General in Japan. This book contains two reports which were originally printed in the Reports of the Consuls of the United States, No. 2, November, 1880, published by the Department of State. The reports as published by the US Government have been slightly modified (corrected) and supplemented with eleven (11) albumen photographs interspersed in the text. The photographs of the Meiji Emperor and Empress in this book are scarce early images. For more information on this book, click here. Van Buren held office from June 1874 until June 1885.

Key Photograph Reference Works
(Mostly Meiji Era Related)

Note 1a.
Bennett, Terry:
Old Japanese Photographs Collectors' Data Guide, London, Bernard Quaritch Ltd., 2006, © Terry Bennett, 8vo, navy blue cloth with gilt title on spine, dust jacket, 308 pp. A must for the person interested in Meiji era photography and photographers. This work will, no doubt, become a standard reference for the collector and student of early photography in Japan. The book spans the period from the importation of the first camera into Japan (1848) through the death of the Emperor Meiji in 1912. It includes sections with old and new articles on photography in Japan, important research data (including Masonic photographers in Japan), numerically sequenced listings, by photograph studio, of over 4,000 photographs (numbers and captions are provided in the listings), a comprehensive index of Japan related stereoview photographers and publishers (350+) during the period of 1859-1912 by Rob Oechsle and reprints of photograph studio advertisements found in publications of the period. The index of stereoview photographers and publishers is supplemented in the research data section of the book with detailed numerical/caption lists of Japan related stereoviews in 13 different sets. ISBN: 0955085241.
Available, Purchase Here

Note 1b.
Bennett, Terry:
Photography in Japan 1853-1912, Singapore, Tokyo, Rutland, Vermont, Tuttle Publishing, 2006, © Terry Bennett, 4to (9 1/2 x 12 3/8 in - 24 x 31.3 cm), gold colored hard covers with white lettering on front and spine, illustrated dust jacket, numerous color reproductions, 320 pp. The definitive English language history of photography in Japan through the end of the Meiji era (1912). The book presents the photo-history of Japan from early photographic experiments and the recording of the first photographic images (1850s), to the establishment of studios by Westerners in newly opened Japan (1860s), to the emergence of major competition by Japanese photographs (1870s), to the decline of Western studios (1880s), to the domination by Japanese studios (1890s) and finally to the full control by Japanese studios (1900s). In this context, Terry Bennett discusses the key photographers and photographic entrepreneurs and presents an amazing amount of biographical information. Reproductions of stunning photographs, many in color, supplement the biographies of the key actors. The book contains reproductions of approximately 400 images (primarily photographs) and the publisher asserts that over 50% are published for the first time in this book. Here you will find biographies of the well know photographers as well the much lesser know individuals who played important roles in the development of photography in Japan. This book will, no doubt, become a cornerstone in the research/reference library of those interested in photography in Meiji era Japan. It is a companion book to "Old Japanese Photographs Collector's Data Guide" by Bennett which was also released in November 2006. That book provides a wealth of detailed information on specific Japanese souvenir albums and attributing photographs to key studios. That book also provides a vast amount of information on attributing Japan related stereoviews to photographs/publishers. These two books are indispensable companions. ISBN: 0804836337.

Available, Purchase Here

Note 2.
Bennett, Terry:
Early Japanese Images, Rutland, Vermont, Charles E. Tuttle Company, 1996, black cloth, dust jacket, 8vo (7 3/4 in x 10 1/2 in), 138+ photographs, bibliography, appendix of photographic terms, listing of 1,000 early photographs showing title, number and in most cases attributed to a specific photographer, 168 pp. Covers the early days of photography in Japan from 1853, when Commodore Perry visited, to the end of the Meiji era in 1912. Includes commentary and examples of the work of Eliphalet Brown, Jr., Felice Beato, Baron Raimund von Stillfried-Rateniz, Adolfo Farsari, Renjo Shimooka, Hikoma Ueno, Kimbei Kusakabe, Kozaburo Tamamura, Kazumasa Ogawa, Kuichi Uchida. The listing of early Japanese photographs is an invaluable resource in identifying 19th century photographs which often had a caption and number but no indication of the photographer. ISBN: 0804820295 (hardback), ISBN: 0804820333 (softback)

Note 3.
Bennett, Terry
Cortazzi, Hugh:
Japan: Caught in Time, New York, 1995, Weatherhill, black cloth, 159 pp. Extensive coverage of 122 color and black and white photographs. These photographs are in the collection of a Russian botanist (Grigoryev) whose travels took him to Japan in 1879. Many of the photographs are attributed to the Western and Japanese photographers including von Stillfried, Usui, Suzuki, Beato. Photographs are presented in sections as follows: The Treaty Ports: Yokohama and Hakodate, Street Life, Domestic Life, Costumes and Portraits, Farming and Handicrafts and Buddhist Temples and Shinto Shrines. A excellent resource. In addition to the photographs, the book provides historical background on Japan and history of photography in early Japan.

Note 4.
The Nagasaki University has a database which contains hundreds of old Japanese photographs. To visit the database, click here.

Note 5a.
Worswick, Clark
Morris, Jan (Introduction):
Japan: Photographs 1854-1905, New York, 1979, A Pennwick/Knopf, black cloth, large 8vo (11 1/4 x 9 1/4 in), oblong format, 117 full page plates, introductory essay by Jan Morris, notes, bibliography, sources of pictures, 151 pp. An excellent photographic reference which covers the most of the Japanese photographers/photographic work during the period from 1854-1905. Photographs are the highlight of this book. There are 117+ plates (all full page, man reproduced in color) reproducing albumen photographs, collotypes, and stereoscopic prints from this period. Several of the items reproduced were hand colored or tinted. Most plates contain a single photograph but a few have two. Includes the works of Kusakabe Kimbei, Isshin Ogawa, (aka, Kazuma/Kazumasa Ogawa), K. Tamamura, Baron von Stillfried, A. Le Bas, Felix Beato, Herbert Ponting, H.C. White and Farsari. Includes technical descriptions of photographic processes in use and an index of commercial and amateur photographers in Japan. (Also issued in softcover format).

Note 5b.
Japan Photographers Association
Dower, John W. (Introduction):
A Century of Japanese Photography, New York, Pantheon Books, 1980, horizontal 8vo, black cloth with dark black lettering on front board and silver lettering on the spine, first American edition of book previously published (Nihon Shashin Shi, 1840-1945) in Japan, 514 halftone illustrations, some in color, photo illustrated slip case, 385 pp. The illustrations all have captions generally range from one to four images per page. A few of the images are in color. The illustrations include an early and seldom seen black and white photographic image of the "Shureinomon gate in Okinawa" by Mitsumara Riso, 1901 (illustration 105). ISBN 0394512324
Available, Purchase Here

Note 6.
Beato, Felice (Photographs)
Von Stillfried, Baron Raimund (Photographs)
Edel, Chantal (Introduction)
Coverdale, Linda (Translator)
Once Upon a Time. Visions of Old Japan From the Photos of Beato and Stillfried and the Words of Pierre Loti, 1986, Friendly Press, first English language edition, 112 pp. Photographs by Felice Beato and Baron Raimund von Stillfried and the words of Pierre Loti. Introduction by Chantal Edel. Translated by Linda Coverdale. Originally published in French by Les Editions Arthaud, Paris, 1984. Reproductions of 72 photographs (most color) from the collection of the Societe de Geographie in Paris. While most of the photographs have numbers in white on the image, only a few have contain descriptive captions on the image. Descriptive captions are provided by Chantal Edel and the photographs are attributed to Felice Beato or Baron von Stillfried). Several of the plates span from one page to the adjoining page. Excellent resource on these high quality hand colored albumen souvenir photographs produced in Japan during the late 1800s. Contains the famous Felice Beato "Execution" photograph. ISBN 0914919075 (apparently same for 1st French edition as well as this US edition.
Available, Purchase Here

Note 7.
Tucker, Anne Wikes
Friis-Hansen, Dana
Ryuichi, Kaneko
Joe, Takeba:
The History of Japanese Photography, New Haven, CT, and London, Yale University Press in association with The Houston Museum of Fine, 2003, red cloth with black lettering on spine, dust jacket, 4to (12 x 9 3/4 in), 405 pp. A comprehensive and profusely illustrated (200+ color and black and white plates and numerous text illustrations) survey of 150 years of photography in Japan. Includes essays by Iizawa Kotaro and Kinoshita Naoyuki. Traces the development of photography in Japan starting in the 1850s. The history of Japanese photography is placed in the context of the interaction of Japanese and Western photographers and other art forms. The best illustrated and document review of Japanese photography I have read. I consider this the keystone of a Meiji era photography reference library. ISBN: 0300099258. Other edition. London edition, 432 pp.
Available, Purchase Here

Note 8.
Tokyo Metropolitan Museum of Photography:
The Advent of Photography in Japan, published jointly by the Tokyo Metropolitan Museum of Photography, Tokyo and the Hakodate Museum of Art, Hokkaido, 1997, 184 pages, soft covers in thick wraps (no hardcover issued), 4to (9 x 11 3/4 in). This book served as a guide for exhibits in Tokyo and Hakodate by the same title held in 1997. Bilingual text in English (some) and Japanese (all). All images that are reproduced in the book have Japanese and English descriptive titles. Most, but not all, of the text has an English version of the Japanese text. This book is an exceptional study of early photography in Japan. It is divided into three sections: 1) between the arrival of the camera obscura and the daguerreotype; 2) the arrival of photography in Japan; and finally 3) works during the 1860s-70s by three key artists/photographers (Renjo Shimooka, Kakoku Shima, and Matsusaburo Yokoyama). The book is beautifully printed and generously illustrated with 228 numbered and titled color images. Many of the numbers have sub-numbers so the total number of images is approximately 280+. Images include: daguerreotypes, albumen photographs, early cameras, photographic chemical kits, artwork pertaining to early photography, the camera obsucra and paintings to be viewed with a camera obscura. A excellent book containing seldom seen images. Perhaps one of the best illustrated and most comprehensive books on early Japanese photography.

Note 9.
March, Philipp (editor)
Delank, Claudia (editor):
The Adventure of Japanese Photography, 1860-1890, Heidelberg, Kehrer Verlag, 2002, 4to, pictorial boards, 128 pp. The book contains 22 pages of English text and foodnotes followed by 90 full page plates reproducing hand colored albumen photographs. Each plate is footnoted and, where known, the photographer given. The book covers a wide range of photographs including rare albumen photographs of flowers.

Note 10.
Sharf, Frederic A.
Dobson, Sebastian
Morse, Anne Nishimura:
Art and Artifice, Japanese Photographs of the Meiji Era, Boston, Museum of Fine Art, 2004, horizontal 8vo (8 1/4 x 10 1/4 in), blue cloth with paste on title and accompanying decorated slipcase with paste on title (hardback version), blue string page marker, numerous plates and text illustrations - most in color, 95 pp. The book is constructed to resemble a 19th century Japan tourist photograph/collotype album. Starts with a discussion by Sharf on tourist travel to Japan which began flourishing in the 1870s and 1880s. His focus is on Yokohama which was the traveler's point of arrival. Next Sebastian Dobson discusses the "Yokohama Shashin" (Yokohama photographs) trade. Discussed in this section are noted photographers such as Felice Beato, Baron Raimund von Stillfried-Ratenicz, Uchida Kuichi, Kusakabe Kimbei, Adolfo Farsari (Sargent, Farsari and Company), Tong Cheong, the Japan Photographic Association (Farsari & Kozaburo Tamamura partnership), David Welsh (Yokohama Photographic Company) and Kozaburo Tamamura. A discussion by Anne N. Morse considers the ("meisho-e" - famous scenic places) genre of images captured in Meiji era photographs and art. These sections are followed by an exceptional section with reproductions of 39 color plates. In a list that follows technical information (where know) for each plate is provided (photographer, subject of image, date, type of print and size in cm). Issued in softcover also. ISBN: 0-87846-683-5 (slipcased hardcover) and 0-87846-682-7 (softcover - published 2003). The softcover version has two Japanese style ornamental string ties. These are not found on the hardcover version.
Available, Slipcased Hardcover Version or Softcover, Purchase Here

Note 11.
Rosenberg, Gert:
Wilhelm Burger, Ein Welt-und Forschungsreisender mit der Kamera, 1844-1920, Wien and Munchen, Christian Brandstatter, German language, 1984, 4to, hardbound, illustrated dust jacket, 229 illustrations black and white duotone (halftone), 192 pp. Pages 44-177 contain plates reproducing W. Burger's photographs. Each plate contains one or more images and descriptive titles in German. The book contains 57 plates (pages 88-144) showing 64 different images taken by Burger while he was in Japan. The book contains numerous halftone text illustrations. Included in this book is the famous "Hinrichtungsplatz in Jedo" image showing the severed head of a criminal placed on public display. The book is an excellent resource for Burger's style of photography and composition of images. Burger arrived in Japan in September of 1869 with the Austria-Hungary diplomatic mission and stayed until March 1870 when he returned to Austria. During this short period he created a excellent portfolio of Japanese images. This book also contains images Burger took on the expedition prior to arrival in Japan as well as after. There are numerous images of Siam (Thailand) and China (including Hong Kong) and Vietnam as well as other examples of Burger's work. Wilhelm Burger was a noted official "Expedition Photographer." The major expeditions traced in this book are the K.K. Mission nach Ost-Asien und South America (Sept 1868-Mar 1870) which included stops in Gibraltar (Nov 1868), Singapore/Borneo (Apr 1869), Siam (April-May 1869), Vietnam (May 1869), China (Jun-Sep 1869), Japan (Nagasaki, Yokohama, Osaka, Kamakura, Tokio - 27 Sep 1869-Mar 1870) the Austro-Hungarian North Pole Expedition (Jun 1872-1874) and expeditions to Samothrace (1876) and Asia Minor (1881). Rosenberg notes that Burger produced a series of "Stereophotographhien" on his return to Europe from the Asian expedition (page 30). ISBN 3854471076.
Available, Purchase Here

Note 12.
Various Authors:
Image, Journal of Photography and Motion Pictures of the International Museum of Photography at George Eastman House, Volume 34, Nos 1-2, Rochester, NY, 1991, 4to, softcover, 62 pp.

a. The J. B. Millet Company's Japan: Described and Illustrated by Denise Bethel, pages 3-15. An excellent and seldom seen discussion regarding these books. The author's focus is on the Mikado edition, a deluxe edition of the set. Contains an extensive discussion of Kazumasa (Isshin) Ogawa.

b. The Far East, A Magazine on the Orient for European Eyes, by Stephen White, pages 39-47. The only article I am aware of that deals with Reddie Black's Far East. This monthly photograph illustrated (tipped in albumen photos) magazine was published between 1870 and 1878. The publication is rare and so are detailed discussions of it.

Available, Purchase Here

Note 13.
Winkel, Margarita:
Souvenirs from Japan, Japanese photography at the turn of the century, London, Bamboo Publishing Ltd, 1991, oblong 8vo (8 1/2 x 9 3/4 in - 22.5 x 26 cm), 171 pictures (including front and back cover - approximately 1/3 in color), 160 pp. Preface by Professor Willem R. van Gulik. A comprehensive illustrated review of photography in Japan in the 19th century. The author discusses various facets of photography in 19th century Japan (methods, noted photographers & subjects) with a focus on how these were applied in the "Souvenir" photographs produced for sale to foreigners and export out of Japan. The discussion is supplemented with 171 reproductions of these "albumen" photographs (many of which were hand colored) from the renowned collection of R. Shilling. ISBN: 1870076583 (paperback) and 1870076184 (cloth).

Note 14.
Palmquist, Peter E. (editor)
Erickson, Bruce T. (article on E. Brown):
The Daguerreian Annual, 1990, Official Yearbook of the Daguerreian Society, Eureka, California, The Daguerreian Society, 1990, 4to, soft covers, edition limited to 1,000 copies, numerous black and white illustrations, 202 pp. Eliphalet M. Brown, Jr., An Early Expedition Photographer by Bruce T. Erickson, pages 145-156. Probably the only extensive discussion of Brown's professional life as an artist, daguerreotypist and member of the Perry Expedition to Japan. The article discusses the very few original daguerreotypes taken by Brown during the Expedition which are confirmed to still be in existence. An excellent resource with much information on Eliphalet M. Brown and his work that has not been previously reported.
Available, Purchase Here.

Note 15.
Crombie, Isobel
Gartlan, Luke (essay):
Shashin: Nineteenth Century Japanese Studio Photography, Melbourne, National Gallery of Victoria, 2004, oblong 8vo, paper wraps, 20 numbered pages of text with 8 illustrations followed by 49 pages each containing a single numbered plate, 51 plates (2 before the text and 49 numbered plates after the text) of photographs in color where the original was colored. This is the exhibition catalogue for an exhibition held between February 8, 2005 and May 22, 2005 at the National Gallery of Victoria. The book is organized into three sections. First are the the "Bijin-Ga - Pictures of Beautiful Women" photographs (plates 1 ~ 19). Next are the photographs of samurai, sumo wrestlers and priests (plates 20 ~ 29). The final section contains photographs of customs and costumes (plates 30 ~ 49). Above each numbered plate is the technical information on the photograph which includes the photographer where that has been determined. Below each plate is a discussion of the image in the photograph. A well executed and illustrated study of studio photography for souvenir photography trade of the late 19th century in Japan. To see the cover, click here.

Note 16.
Bennett, Terry:
Old Japan Catalogue, London, 12mo/large 8vo, paper wraps. Each catalogue carries a sequential number. The subtitles varied over the years and include "Antiquarian Books" (No. 6, 1983), "Photographers" (No. 8), "Photographs, Prints, Books, and Manuscripts" (No. 9) and "Old and Rare Photographs" (No. 33, 2005). The company has been in business since 1982 and publishes a catalogue approximately every year. The earliest catalogue I have seen is No. 6 (1983). Old Japan is the preeminent dealer in old Japanese photographs. Each catalogue generally presents 100+ choice items from the firm's stock. The items are well illustrated and presented with in depth discussion. In recent years the emphasis has been on albumen photographs (individually, in groups and in albums). Attribution of these images to particular photographers is complicated and the descriptions give very useful and important information in this regards. The catalogues are an invaluable reference resource for those interested in these items. The focus is on images from the 1860's through the first two decades of the 20th century. Material is presented in numbered lots. Most catalogues do not carry the price in the text. In that case the lot prices are provided by means of an insert or price on request on extremely rare items. Unfortunately, the inserts are often missing when catalogues are obtained in the after-market. Earlier catalogues do not carry dates in the text of the catalogue but it no doubt was included with the price insert. The Old Japan web site is here and I highly recommend it.

Note 17.
Boyd, Torin
Izakura, Naomi:
Portraits in Sepia from the Japanese carte de visite collection of Torin Boyd and Naomi Izakura (Sepia: Iro no Shozo), Tokyo, Asahi Sonorama in conjunction with the JCII Camera Museum, 4to, October 2000, 328 pp. Photography and photographers in Japan from the late 1840s through the end of the Meiji era (1912). Over 200 items pictured. Text in Japanese and English. Comprehensive index with biographical information on over 1,000 Japanese and non-Japanese photographers. Bound in at the back is a color insert with examples to use in identifying the various types of prints (salted paper print, albumen print, printing out paper - collodion or gelatin, matte collodian printing out paper with gold tint, gelatin developing out of paper, and collotype) (ISBN 4257035986)

Note 18.
Morse, E.S.
Ohara, Tetsuo (Editor):
Peabody Museum of Salem, E.S. Morse Collection/Photography, Tokyo, Shogakukan, 4to (9 x 12 in), 1983, cloth, Japanese text, one page "Message" in English, illustrated dust jacket, 300 illustrations/figures with captions in Japanese and English, 211 pp. Numerous (14) contributing authors listed in addition to the editor. E.S. Morse arrived in Japan in June of 1877 and remained there for two years. Morse was a zoologist and his primary reason for going to Japan was the search for mollusks and brachiopods. While in Japan he amassed huge collections of shells and pottery. He also collected photographs and those are the subject of this collection housed in the Peabody Museum of Salem. In addition to his initial two year stay, Morse returned to Japan at least two more times for short visits. The photographs reproduced in this book span the period from the 1870s through the 1910s with the bulk dated to ca. 1880-1890. The images are primarily of Japanese engaged in the everyday activities. Very few of the images are of scenery or the sites normally visited by the tourist. When a photograph was hand colored, it is reproduced in color in the book. The book contains wonderful color reproductions of images from glass slides (lantern slides) and the majority of the images (color and black and white) appear to have be reproduced from that format. A strong focus of Morse's attention is people engaged in arts and crafts. Illustrative of this are two black and white photographs of weaving on Okinawa which are dated ca. 1900. To see the cover, click here. ISBN 4095630116
Available, Purchase Here.

Note 19.
Banta, Melissa (editor)
Taylor, Susan (editor):
A Timely Encounter, Nineteenth-Century Photographs of Japan, Cambridge, Mass, published by the Peabody Museum Press for the Wellesley College Museum, 1988, 8vo, paper wraps, 71 pp. This is an exhibition catalogue for "An exhibition of photographs from the collection of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology and the Wellesley College Museum." The catalogue reproduces 62 items (frontispiece plus 61 numbered images) with most being photographs, some in color. Many of the photographs are attributed to Stillfried and Anderson Co. based upon the studio imprint. The images cover the period from the 1850s to through the 1880s. ISBN: 0873658108. To see the cover, click, here.
Available, Purchase Here.

Note 20.
Edel, Chantal:
Fin de Siecle, Japon, France, Edition Arthaud, 2000, 4to, hard covers, numerous color reproductions of 19th century colored albumen photographs, text in French, 112 pp. Photographs of Japan at the end of the 19th century. This book reproduces fine quality albumen photographs of Japan held by the Societe de Geographie, Paris. Over 70 different albumen photographs are presented and the majority are attributed to Felice Beato or Baron Raimund von Stillfried. ISBN: 2700312805. To see the cover, click, here.

Note 21.
F. Beato Bakumatsu Nihon Shashin-shu, Yokohama, Yokohama Kaiko Shiryokan (Yokohama Archives of History), 1987, 8vo, text in Japanese English captions for almost all illustrations, stiff wraps, 199 pp. The book is composed of two parts. The major portion, pages 1-168, deals with F. Beato's photographic work in Japan. This portion contains 237 illustrations which primarily reproduce Beato's photographs. Four of the photographs are reproduced in color and some foldout. There are also two maps in color on a foldout page (front and back). The second part (pages 169-199) deals with other photographers and individuals to include William Saunders, Charles Parker, Charles Wirgman, Raimund Stillfried, K. Tamamura and others. This portion of the book is illustrated with 52 small images which are placed at the top of each page. Here you find reproductions of photographs, advertisements and illustrations from periodicals. At least two editions were published, both of these in 1987.

Note 22.
Felice Beato in Japan: Photographien Zum Ende Der Feudalzeit 1863-1873, Heidelbert, Edition Braus, 1991, 4to, text in German, paper wraps, 207 pp. Approximately 140 illustrations from Beato's photographs. A catalogue of a 1991 German exhibition of Beato's work.

Note 23.
For a comprehensive illustrated discussion of T. Enami's life and work, visit Rob Oechsle's outstanding web site at While Enami's work is found in the large albumen photographs, it is in the small format image (like stereoviews) where he concentrated his efforts.

Note 24.
Fulton, Marianne
Stapp, William F.
Condax, Philip L.:
Souvenirs of Asia: Photography in the Far East, 1840-1920, published in Volume 37, Nos. 3-4 (Fall/Winter, 1994) of Image, the Journal of Photography and Motion Pictures of George Eastman House, New York, 1994, 8vo, stiff wraps, 62 pp. This issue serves as a catalogue for an exhibition of the same name by the George Eastman House, International Museum of Photography and Film, held at Photokina 1994 in Cologne, Germany. The four major sections in this issue are: Section 1. "Souvenirs of Asia, Photography in the Far East (1840-1920)" by William F. Stapp (pages 2-53 with 28 figures/illustrations of which 4 are in color). This section is broken into the following three major parts: a - India (pages 4-16), b - China and Southeast Asia (pages 16-23) and c - Japan (pages 23-34). These parts are opened with and Introduction (page 1) by Marianne Fulton and followed by Endnotes (pages 35-38), Biographies of Photographers (pages 39-44) and an Exhibition Checklist (pages 45-53); Section 2. "From the Collections" by Philip L. Condax (pages 54-58 with five figures in text); Section 3 "Recent Acquisitions, Daido Moriyama" (pages 58-60 with 3 figures), Daido Moriyama Chronology (page 61), and Section 4. "Museum Staff" (page 62). The checklist has a total of 110 items on exhibit and provides details on each of them. The "From the Collections" portion of the issued deals with the equipment, materials and processes used to produce photographic images. To see the front cover, click here.

Note 25.
Ozawa Takeshi:
Bakumatsu: Shashin no jidai, Tokyo, Chikuma Shobo, 1994, large 8vo (8 1/2 x 11 3/4 in), hard covers, illustrated dust jacket, 312 numbered images in color and black and white on plates and as text illustrations, all text in Japanese, 308 pp. This book is an exceptionally well illustrated history of photography in Japan during the closing years of the Tokugawa era (1850s-1860s). Many of the plates span two adjoining pages and four plates fold out to present panoramic photographs. The book contains an appendix which is a facsimile of an early (1854) Japanese book on the technical aspects of photography. Many early, rare and seldom seen photographs are reproduced. This includes one of the daguerreotypes taken by E. Brown in Japan during the Perry Expedition to Japan (1853-4). ISBN: 4480856528.
Available, Purchase Here.

Note 26.
Gartlan, Luke (Guest Editor):
History of Photography, Volume 33, Number 2, issue titled Photography in Nineteenth-Century Japan, United Kingdom, May 2009, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 4to, color and black and white text illustrations, illustrated stiff wraps, numbered pages 109-232. This volume is a compendium of 7 articles/essays on photography in 19th century Japan. They deal with 1) photography during Prussian Expedition to Japan, 1860-61, by Sebastian Dobson (pages 112-131), 2) photographic studio practices reflected in the "Tomishige Archive" by Karen Fraser (pages 132-144), 3) the role of Samuel Cocking in Japanese photography by Luke Gartlan (pages 145-164), 4) photographs of the Emperor and Imperial family by Mikiko Hirayama (pages 165-184), 5) photographs of Ogasawara Islands during the Japanese Expedition there in 1875-76 by David R. Odo (pages 185-208), 6) Kusababe Kimbei's photographs with images of women by Mio Wakita (pages 209-223) and 7) a bibliography for the period 2000-2008 by Sebastian Dobson and Luke Gartlan (pages 224-232). These articles are introduced by an editorial by Luke Gartlan (pages 109-11). Samuel Cocking was an English entrepreneur who arrived in Japan in early 1869. He was an amateur photographer and a part of his business included the import, manufacture and sale of photographic supplies and equipment. In his article Gartlan traces Cockings key role in the development of photography in 19th century Japan. To see the front cover here. ISBN: 03087298(2009)33:2;1R


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