President of the United States
Emperor of Japan
Washington, D.C., May 10, 1851
GREAT AND GOOD FRIEND: I send you this public letter by Commodore
Matthew C. Perry, an officer of the highest rank in the navy of the United
States, and commander of the squadron now visiting Your imperial majesty's
I have directed Commodore Perry to assure your imperial majesty that I
entertain the kindest feelings toward your majesty's person and government,
and that I have no other object in sending him to Japan but to propose to your
imperial majesty that the United States and Japan should live in friendship
and have commercial intercourse with each other.
The Constitution and laws of the United States forbid all interference with
the religious or political concerns of other nations. I have particularly
charged Commodore Perry to abstain from every act which could possibly
disturb the tranquillity of your imperial majesty's dominions.
The United States of America reach from ocean to ocean, and our Territory
of Oregon and State of California lie directly opposite to the dominions of
your imperial majesty. Our steamships can go from California to Japan in
Our great State of California produces about sixty millions of dollars in gold
every year, besides silver, quicksilver, precious stones, and many other valuable
articles. Japan is also a rich and fertile country, and produces many very
valuable articles. Your imperial majesty's subjects are skilled in many of the
arts. I am desirous that our two countries should trade with each other, for
the benefit both of Japan and the United States.
We know that the ancient laws of your imperial majesty's government do not
allow of foreign trade, except with the Chinese and the Dutch; but as the
state of the world changes and new governments are formed, it seems to be
wise, from time to time, to make new laws. There was a time when the ancient
laws of your imperial majesty's government were first made.
About the same time America, which is sometimes called the New World, was
first discovered and settled by the Europeans. For a long time there were but
a few people, and they were poor. They have now become quite numerous; their
commerce is very extensive; and they think that if your imperial majesty were
so far to change the ancient laws as to allow a free trade between the two
countries it would be extremely beneficial to both.
If your imperial majesty is not satisfied that it would be safe altogether to
abrogate the ancient laws which forbid foreign trade, they might be suspended
for five or ten years, so as to try the experiment. If it does not prove as
beneficial as was hoped, the ancient laws can be restored. The United States
often limit their treaties with foreign States to a few years, and then renew
them or not, as they please.
I have directed Commodore Perry to mention another thing to your imperial
majesty. Many of our ships pass every year from California to China; and great
numbers of our people pursue the whale fishery near the shores of Japan. It
sometimes happens, in stormy weather, that one of our ships is wrecked on your
imperial majesty's shores. In all such cases we ask, and expect, that our
unfortunate people should be treated with kindness, and that their property
should be protected, till we can send a vessel and bring them away. We are very
much in earnest in this.
Commodore Perry is also directed by me to represent to your imperial majesty
that we understand there is a great abundance of coal and provisions in the
Empire of Japan. Our steamships, in crossing the great ocean, burn a great
deal of coal, and it is not convenient to bring it all the way from America. We
wish that our steamships and other vessels should be allowed to stop in Japan
and supply themselves with coal, provisions, and water. They will pay for them
in money, or anything else your imperial majesty's subjects may prefer; and we
request your imperial majesty to appoint a convenient port, in the southern
part of the Empire, where our vessels may stop for this purpose. We are very
desirous of this.
These are the only objects for which I have sent Commodore Perry, with a
powerful squadron, to pay a visit to your imperial majesty's renowned city of
Yedo: friendship, commerce, a supply of coal and provisions, and protection for
our shipwrecked people.
We have directed Commodore Perry to beg your imperial majesty's acceptance
of a few presents. They are of no great value in themselves; but some of them
may serve as specimens of the articles manufactured in the United States, and
they are intended as tokens of our sincere and respectful friendship.
May the Almighty have your imperial majesty in His great and holy keeping!
In witness whereof, I have caused the great seal of the United States to be
hereunto affixed, and have subscribed the same with my name, at the city of
Washington, in America, the seat of my government, on the thirteenth day of
the month of November, in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-two.
Your good friend,
MILLARD FILLMORE, President
EDWARD EVERETT, Secretary of State