The Dragon of Horiuji Temple

by Kawanabe Kyosai

~~ Paintings and Studies by Kawanabe Kyosai ~~
by Josiah Conder

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Conder, Josiah
Tamura, T. (color frontispiece)
Ogawa, Kazumasa (collotype and halftone plates):
Paintings and Studies by Kawanabe Kyosai. An Illustrated and Descriptive Catalogue of a Collection of Paintings, Studies, and Sketches, by the Above Artist, with Explanatory Notes on the Principles, Materials, and Technique, of Japanese Painting, Tokyo, The Maruzen Kabushiki Kaisha, distributed by Kelly & Walsh, Ltd, printed by the "Japan Times" press, 1911, large 4to (11 x 14 1/2 in - 27.5 x 37 cm), green cloth with gilt decoration and lettering on front cover, beveled edges, I-XVII, 131 pp. Tissue guard protected "Illuminated" frontispiece in eighty color blocks and "heightened with gold and silver" by T. Tamura. Three plates of Kyosai seals and signatures printed in red (49 figures). Thirty-three collotype plates and twenty-two pages of half-tone illustrations (87 figures) by K. Ogawa. The 59 pages of plates [+1 (frontisplate) +3 (seal plates) +33 collotype plates +22 pages of halftone plates] are not numbered and are in addition to the 131 pages of text. Each of the 33 collotype plates is protected by a tissue guard with descriptive information.

This is a comprehensive catalogue of art by Kawanabe Kyosai that was in Josiah Conder's personal collection. The art is primarily from the period of 1881-1889. Conder was a student and personal friend of the artist. Through this large collection and his personal association with Kyosai, Conder was eminently qualified to discuss all aspects of the artist's work from material employed to methods and techniques of painting to how he signed his work.

Technical Aspects of Plates:

Frontisplate (1):

  • Color wood block print.
  • Printed one side only (faces title page).
  • Thick paper stock - thickness measures 0.001in / 0.025mm.
  • Tissue guard protected.

Collotype prints (33)

  • Black and white collotype printed.
  • Printed front side only.
  • Thick paper stock - thickness measures 0.00125in / 0.031mm. .
  • Descriptive text tissue guard protected.

Halftone prints (11 plates printed front and back, 22 pages with 87 numbered figures)

  • Black and white halftone printed
  • Printed front and back.
  • Thin glossy paper stock - thickness measures 0.0006in / 0.015mm.
  • No tissue guard protectors

Red prints (3 plate of Kyosai seals & signatures, 49 numbered figures).

  • Red and white printed.
  • Printed front side only.
  • Thick paper stock - thickness measures 0.0008in / 0.02mm.
  • No tissue guard protectors

Collotype Plates by K. Ogawa. The plates are numbered with Roman numerals. There are 33 collotype plates at the rear of the book and they are attributed to K. Ogawa on the title page. It is unclear whether he photographed them or actually printed the plates or both. This is generally the case in publications such as this and I suspect he photographed and printed them. These plates are on thick card stock type paper and printed on one side only. Each is protected by an unnumbered descriptive tissue guard and interspersed among these tissue guard protected plates are numbered pages with textual comment on the art depicted on the plates as well as art not depicted. While 33+ items are reproduced, there is commentary on 100+ items on these numbered text page. An illustrative numbered descriptive text page is here. These comments give a descriptive name for the item, the size, the medium painted on and the technique used. In addition, they indicate how the piece is signed with reference to the seals/signatures that are illustrated on 3 earlier pages. Plates are sometimes discussed and referenced in the earlier text portion of the book.

Here is how the collotype plates are organized.

Collection of Paintings (20 collotype plates, 82 items of art discussed
Screen Drawings (8 collotype plates, 12 items of art discussed)
Framed Paintings (5 collotype plates 6 items of art discussed)

Some plates present more than one item (like the screens where one plate has 2 or more images of panels from a screen). Likewise some text discussions cover more than one image).

Halftone Plates by K. Ogawa. There are 22 pages halftone plates (11 plates). These are printed on the same glossy paper which is the same weight as the text pages. The pages are printed front and back. Each image on the plate is assigned a figure number. There are a total of 87 figures. The figures are employed to illustrate points made in the text portion of the book.

The paintings and print subjects of Kawanabe Kyosai (1831-1889) range from traditional to comic, pornographic, bizarre and fantastic. His painting often contain imagery of dragons, ghosts, devils, and demons. His drawing style was unique and at the same time he was capable of painting in the finest traditional style. Kyosai formed a close association with Josiah Conder.

 

                        Contents
                                                   Page
Short Title Page                                      I
Frontisplate                                         II
Title Page                                       III-IV
Preface                                             V-X
Contents                                         XI-XII
Errata Sheet bound in
List of illustrations                         XIII-XVII
Life of the Painter                                   1
Painting Materials                                   15
Painting Methods                                     27
Examples of Technique                                45
Signatures and Seals                                 79
Catalogue of Collection                              93
Glossary                                        127-131



Short-title page reads "Paintings and Studies by Kwanabe Kyosai". 

Frontispiece:  Chromo-xylograph of painting 
on one leaf of Screen

(Area of image is 12.2 x 27.1 cm)

Full Title Page (printed in red) is here


Collotype Plates

["Collection of Paintings" (Kakemono) heading, Plates I - XX]

Plate I.       The famous courtesan, Jigokn-dayu, the priest Ikkiu, 
                 and dancing skeletons.
               
               
Plate II.      Hut of the Chinese basket-maker Hokoji. 
               Hokoji's daughter Ueishojo.
               
Plate III.     Paintings  from  Mitsunaga's scroll illustrating the 
                "Ills of Mankind"  
               A Ghost.
               
               
Plate IV.      The Shinto deity Susano killing the nine-headed sea-dragon.

Plate V.       The goddess Usume dancing.  
               The Wistaria-maiden and Demon-priest.
               
               
Plate VI.      Ebisu and Okame before a painting of Daikolui. 

Plate VII.     The demon-queller (Shoki), and two demons.
               

Plate VIII.    Mountain view in rain. 

Plate IX.      Mushroom-gathering at Arashiyania.
               
               
Plate X.       A tiger.
               
               Plate with Description
               
Plate XI.      The dragon crossing in front of Fujiyama.
               
               
Plate XII.     Bamboos in a rain storm. 
               Two crows on a tree, with landscape.
Plate XIII.    Carp, swimming in a lake.

Plate XIV.     A flying crane, pines, bamboos, and tortoises,
               with the rising sun. 
               
               
Plate XV.      The god-of-wind chased by a falcon. 
Plate XVI.     White eagle, and monkey. 
Plate XVII.    A concourse of crows. 

Plate XVIII.   The goddess Kwannon on a dragon.
               
               
Plate XIX.     The magician called Gama-Sennin. 
               The magician called Tekkai-Sennin. 
Plate XX.      A monkey.  Hawk on snow-covered tree 
               holding a sparrow. 
               
               
["Screens"  Plates XXI - XXVIII]

Plale XXI.     A Japanese beauty of the llth century.  Female 
               
               
               attendant and young girl, of the same period. 
Plate XXII.    Hidari Jigoro and the Kyoto image. 
Plate XXIII.   Figure from the lyrical drama, Momiji-gari.
               Sword and falling maple leaves.
               Figures from the lyrical drama, representing the Thunder-god.
               A priest struck by lightning.
               
Plate XXIV.    The Kwannon temple of Kiyomidzu, with cherry trees in blossom.
               The goddess Kwannon in battle.
               
               
Plate XXV.     The famous courtesan, Jigoku-dayu, in company with a demon.
               The priest Ikkiu holding a skull on a stick.
               
Plate XXVI.    A hawk in downward flight, and reeds.
               A sparrow in flight and the rising sun.
               A demon disguised as an itinerant priest, and a servant-hoy.
               The Wistaria-maiden  (Fujimusume) and a falconer emerging 
                from a painting on a screen.
               
               
Plate XXVII.   Small long-eared owl on a plum tree stump.
               Fish of different kinds swimming.
               White hawk, pine tree, and waterfall.
Plate XXVIII.  Rabbits among flowers, and a snake.
               A white and a black monkey on a fruit tree.
               

["Framed Paintings" (Gaku)  Plates XXIX-XXXIII]

Plate XXIX.    The seven gods of fortune and Okame at a banquet.
               A procession of blind men led by a white hare to the moon.
               
Plato XXX.     The dragon of Horiuji temple.
               The female demon of Togakushi-yama.
               
               
Plate XXXI.    The temptation of Shaka Niorai.
               
               
Plate XXXII.   The punishment and conversion of Rokuso Zenji.
               
               
Plate XXXIII.  Landscape showing a mountain tarn, with reeds, distant 
                hills, and a misty moor, with wild geese and ducks.


Half-tone Illustrations

Fig.  1.   Diagram showing square brush-strokes used for drawing rocks  
Fig.  2.   Outlines for rocks and rushing torrent 
Fig.  3.   Outline of tree-structure  
Fig.  4.   Outlines of sea-rocks and waves 

Fig.  5.   Outline of tree in wind
           
           
Fig.  6.   Outlines of undulating water, and sketch in line of breakers,
           made at Enoshima 
Fig.  7.   Diagram showing lines and washes used in drawing hill contours 
Fig.  8.   Outlines of nude figures in exaggerated action
Fig.  9.   Various outlines used in representing different types of faces, 
            and hands
Fig. 10.   Outlines employed in drawing drapery. 
Fig. 11.   Wash-sketches explanatory of drawing of small fish, of fish shown
           in a water-current, and of the claw of a crab drawn in silhouette
Fig. 12.   Sketches of carp made in outline and ink wash 
Fig. 13.   Study, in detailed outline, of two large carp made for painting
           of Kakemono
           Plate XIII  
Fig. 14.   Study in detailed outline of another carp as seen from the front,
           for the same painting  
Fig. 15.   Study, in detailed outline, of back view of a carp, for the
           same painting
Fig. 16.   Outline study for the Kyoto image of the painting on Screen 3.
           Plate XXII 
Fig. 17.   Outline study for the painting of a Chinese lady
Fig. 18.   Outline drawing for album-painting of a tortoise catching a frog

Fig. 19.   Outline study for the painting of Kwannon on a dragon in Kakemouo
           Plate XVIII 
           
           
Fig. 20.   Bold outline drawing of an actor 
Fig. 21.   Elaborate outline drawing for a painting of the goddess Usume
           and musicians before the cave of the Sun-goddess
Fig. 22.   Elaborate outline drawing for a painting of the god Tajikara hurling
           away the cavern-rock and disclosing the Sun-goddess
Fig. 23.   Outline drawing of a Rakan (Arhat) doctoring a dragon 
Fig. 24.   Outline drawing of three Rakan, an elephant, a camel, and a demon,
           riding in the sea
Fig. 25.   Ink line and wash drawing of a seated Rakan
Fig. 26.   Ink outline drawing of a Rakan on a dragon, in waves
Fig. 27.   Outline drawing of a Rakan, demon, and dragon
Fig. 28.   Outline drawing of a Rakan with a lion
Fig. 29.   Strong ink line drawing of a seated Rakan, rock, and owl 
Fig. 30.   Ink line and wash drawing of a Rakan playing with a monkey
Fig. 31.   Ink line and wash drawing of a Rakan feasting, with attendant serving

Fig. 32.   Unfinished outline of a Rakan with a crook, and another figure 
           
           
           faintly indicated in charcoal
Fig. 33.   Outline study for the painting of Shoki and two demons in Kakemono 22,
           Plate  VII 
Fig. 34.   Humorous sketch in ink-wash of the God of thunder, fallen from 
           the clouds
Fig. 35.   Humorous outline sketch of Ebisu with his fish
Fig. 36.   Ink sketch of an aged man and a plant-seller
Fig. 37.   Humorous outline sketches of Daikoku and Ebisu 
Fig. 38.   Ink sketch of a boy riding an ox, on a moor 

Fig. 39.   Illustration of the paintings of Screen 5
           
           
Fig. 40.   Rough design for ornament used on robe of figure in Screen 1,
           Frontispiece, and Plate  XXI
Fig. 41.   Rough design for water-spirals and ballast-baskets in the 
           same painting
Fig. 42.   Diagram for setting-onto of bamboo pattern on the same painting
Fig. 43.   Sketch in ink of the same bamboo-pattern
Fig. 44.   Design for medallions used on the sash of figure in the same painting
Fig. 45.   Designs for other medallions
Fig. 46.   Design for ornament of wave-spirals
Fig. 47.   Design for sea-weed ornament
Fig. 48.   Design for painted dragon on drum
Fig. 49.   Study for distribution of ivy-leaf pattern upon robe of 
           figure in Screen 1
Fig. 50.   Detailed outline study for wicker-work flower-basket in 
           the same painting
           
Fig. 51.   Continuation of Fig. 49
           
           
Fig. 52.   Ink sketches for two horizontal panel paintings of crows
Fig. 53.   Ink sketches for two horizontal panel paintings of crows
Fig. 54.   Ink sketches for two horizontal panel paintings of crows
Fig. 55.   Ink sketches for two horizontal panel paintings of crows
Fig. 56.   Ink sketches for two horizontal panel paintings of crows
Fig. 57.   Ink sketches for two horizontal panel paintings of crows
Fig. 58.   Ink sketches for two horizontal panel paintings of crows

Fig. 59.   Ink sketches for two horizontal panel paintings of crows
           
           
Fig. 60.   Outline sketch for horizontal panel painting of crows
Fig. 61.   Ink sketch for horizontal panel painting of pigeons in 
           bamboos
Fig. 62.   Outline study of pigeons and clouds    
Fig. 63.   Ink sketch for vertical panel painting of crows
Fig. 64.   Ink sketch for vertical panel painting of crows
Fig. 65.   Ink sketch for vertical panel painting of small birds
Fig. 66.   Ink sketch for vertical panel painting of crows and sun
Fig. 67.   Ink-wash sketch of ladies and children at games
Fig. 68.   Rough ink sketches for panel pictures of long-armed monkeys

Fig. 69.   Ink-wash sketch of dancing figures
           
           
Fig. 70.   Ink-wash sketch of Okame, Daikoku, and his rats
Fig. 71.   Ink line sketch of Hotei and children 
Fig. 72.   Ink-wash sketch of Daikoku and Ebisu 
Fig. 73.   Outline sketch of Daikoku with rats, and Fukurokujin 
           with children
Fig. 74.   Outline sketches of Daikoku as a pedlar   
Fig. 75.   Rough outline sketch of subject from history of Yoshitsune
Fig. 76.   Rough outline sketch of numerous figures carousing
Fig. 77.   Sundry rough outline sketches

Fig. 78.   Rough outline sketch of numerous figures at amusements
           
           
Fig. 79.   Illustration of Daruma painting, Kakemono 68
           
           
Fig. 80.   Illustration of large Daruma painting, unmounted Kakemono 79
Fig. 81.   Outline sketch of youth flying a kite 
Fig. 82.   Outline sketch of female figures dancing 
Fig  83.   Outline sketch of a Shinto dance  

Fig. 84.   Caricature sketch in outline
Fig. 85.   Outline copy of carved image by Unkei, at Kamakura

Fig. 86.   Caricature sketch of Shoki, demons, and Emma-o
           
           
Fig. 87.   Outline copy of carved image by Unkei, at Kamakura


Impressions in red of 16 of Kyosai's seals
            

Impressions in red of 18 of Kyosai's seals
           
           
Impressions in red of 15 of Kyosai's seals
           

Close up of the high quality K. Ogawa collotype printing

From Plate III

 


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