Mississippi entered Norfolk Navy Yard 30 March 1931 for a modernization overhaul, departing once again on training exercises in September 1933. For the next 7 years she operated off the west coast, except for winter Caribbean cruises. Returning to Norfolk 16 June 1941, she prepared for patrol service in the North Atlantic.
Two days after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Mississippi left Iceland for the Pacific. Arriving 22 January 1942 at San Francisco, she spent the next 7 months training and escorting convoys along the coast. On 6 December, after participating in exercises off Hawaii, she steamed with troop transports to the Fiji Islands, returning to Pearl Harbor 2 March 1943. On 10 May she sailed from Pearl Harbor to participate in a move to restore the Aleutians to their rightful possessors. Kiska Island was shelled 22 July, and a few days later the Japanese withdrew. After overhaul at San Francisco, Mississippi sailed from San Pedro 19 October to take part in the invasion of the Gilbert islands. On 31 January 1944 she took part in the Marshall Islands campaign, shelling Kwajalein.
Due for an overhaul, she spent the summer months at Puget Sound. Returning to the war zone, Mississippi supported landings on Peleliu, in the Palau islands, on 12 September. After a week of continuous operations she steamed to Manus, where she remained until 12 October. Departing Manus, she assisted in the liberation of the Philippines, shelling the east coast of Leyte on 19 October. On the night of the 24th, as part of Admiral Oldendorf's battleline, she helped to destroy a powerful Japanese task force at the Battle of Suriago Strait. As a result of the engagements at Leyte Gulf, the Japanese navy was no longer able to mount any serious offensive threat. Mississippi continued to support the operations at Leyte Gulf until 16 November, when she steamed to the Admiralty Islands. She then entered San Pedro Bay, Leyte, 28 December, to prepare for the landings on Luzon. On 6 January 1945 she began bombarding in Lingayen Gulf. Despite damages near her waterline received from the crash of a suicide plane, she supported the invasion forces until 10 February.
Following repairs at Pearl Harbor, she sailed to Nakagusuku Wan, Okinawa, arriving 6 May to support the landing forces there. Her powerful guns leveled the defenses at Shuri Castle, which had stalled the entire offensive. On 5 June, a kamikaze crashed into her starboard side, but the fighting ship continued to support the troops at Okinawa until 16 June.
After the surrender of Japan, Mississippi steamed to Sagami Wan, Honshu, arriving 27 August as part of the support occupation force. She anchored in Tokyo Bay, witnessed the signing of the surrender documents, and steamed for home on 6 September. She arrived 27 November at Norfolk, where she underwent conversion to AG-128, effective 15 February 1946. She spent the last 10 years of her career carrying out investigations of gunnery problems and testing new weapons, while based at Norfolk. Mississippi decommissioned at Norfolk 17 September 1956. Mississippi received eight battle stars for World War II service.
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