Hong Kong Harbor, ca 1847
Exploratory Visit to
Consular Cities of China
1847, Second Edition
A Narrative of an Exploratory Visit to Each of the Consular Cities of China, and to the Islands of Hong Kong and Chusan, in Behalf of the Church Missionary Society in the Years 1844, 1845, 1846, London, Seeley, Burnside & Seeley, Hatchard & Son and J. Nisbet and Co., 1847 (stated to be Second Edition), printed by W. Watts, London, 12 tinted full page plates (7 lithograph and 5 engraved), 1 double page map of China, 8vo, brown blind-stamped cloth with gilt vignette of a ship on front cover, 532 pp. Several of the plates (lithograph and engraved are marked "Kidd Lith" at the bottom left corner. The map was published by John Arrowsmith and outlines the route of the author's trip in yellow. Bishop Smith was sent on a mission to visit the five newly opened Chinese treaty ports of Canton, Shanghai, Ningopo, Foo-Choo and Amoy. The trip also included visits to Hong Kong and Chusan. As stated in the forward, the purpose of this visit was to "...prepare the way for other Missionaries of the Church by collecting statistical facts, recording general observations and by furnishing detailed data for rightly estimating the moral, social and political condition of that particular nation." The book offers detailed views of life in the five Chinese Treaty Ports in the mid-1840s with a constant focus on the existing and future role of Christian missionaries. Smith's work must have been highly regarded by the Church of England as in 1850 the Church sent him to Hong Kong and gave him responsibility for missionary activities in China and Japan.
Title Page (Second Edition)
Listing of Plates
View of Victoria, Hong Kong, From the Opposite Mainland (Frontispiece) [Lithograph, Tinted]
View of Macao -- page 67 [Lithograph, Tinted]
Annual Worshipping at Tombs -- page 119 [Woodcut Engraving, Tinted]
"R. Barfoot, Del"
Religious Procession of Chinese Ladies -- page 169 [Woodcut Engraving, Tinted]
"R. Barfoot, Del"
Offerings of Boat People at A Temple Near Ningpo -- 226 [Lithograph, Tinted]
Dragon Boats -- 228 [Woodcut Engraving, Tinted]
Chinese School -- 290 [Lithograph, Tinted]
Superstitious Rites in a Taouist Temple -- 359 [Woodcut Engraving, Tinted]
Preparations for the New Year -- 405 [Woodcut Engraving, Tinted]
Chinese Gamblers -- 415 [Lithograph, Tinted]
A Newly-Made Graduate Adoring the Ancestral Tablet on his Promotion -- 464 [Lithograph, Tinted]
View of Hong Kong Harbor from East Point -- 503 [Lithograph, Tinted]
Map of China (2 pages)
Chapters (Main title - complete, subsections - comprehensive but partial listing):
- Departure from Hong Kong to Canton. Objects of Visit to Canton, Voyage in a Chinese Vessel, Native Crew, Wampoa, Canton River, Landing at Foreign Factories, State of Public Feelings Towards, Foreigners, Chinese Teacher, Choo, Budhist Priest's Visit, Leang Afa.
- General Description of the City of Canton. Early History and Civilization, Ancient Commercial Celebrity, Extended Intercourse with Europeans in the Sixteenth Century, Troubles on Tartar Conquest of China, Topography of City, Difficulty of Foreigners entering the City Proper, Crowded Population, Narrow Streets, Shops, Medical Missionary Hospital, Surgical Operations, The Parsees.
- Further Account of Canton. Visit to Honan Monastery, Numerous Temples, Monks and Nuns in Canton, Universal Idolatry, Visit of some Petty Mandarins and Priest's Alarm, Religious Services, Interview with a High Chinese Military Officer, Pending Examinations for Keu-jin Literary Degree, Visit of Tang-shin, a Literary Chines.
- Excursions into the Suburbs of Canton. The Beggars' Square, Excursion into Rural Hamlets of Honan, Visit from Leang Afa's Son, A-tuh, Excursion with a Native Preacher on the Banks of the River, A Native Book Composed and Distributed to Discourage Female Infanticide, Chinese Illuminations and Street Theatricals.
- Removal to Macao, and Return to Hong Kong. Voyage to macao, Description of the Place, Its Former Importance and Present Decay, Origin of the Settlement, Its Peculiarity as a Missionary Station, Popish Intolerance, Morrison and Milne, Voyage to Hong Kong, Detention at Hong Kong, Missionary Excursions, Villages of Hong Kong, Villages on Mainland China, Agong, a Native Preacher, Ordinance of the British Government against Secret Societies, Political Origin of the 'Triad Society,' Chinese Population of Hong Kong, Case of A-quei, A Native Juggler.
- Unsuccessful Voyage Along the Eastern Coast, and Second Visit to Canton. Chinese Assault on Three Britishmen at Canton, Remonstrance of British Plenipotentiary, Rumoured Disturbances at Amoy, Opportunity of a Passage in Warsteamer sent thither, General Character of the Coast, Successive Points of Shore, Accident and Compulsory Return under sail to Hong Kong, Voyage to Canton, Recent Imperial Edict of Toleration in Favour of Christianity.
- Real Extent of Missionary Openings at Canton. Projected Missionary Services at the 'Ningpo Exchange," Alarm of the Superintending Officer, Friendliness of the Better Class, Defective Courage of Native Preachers, Riotous Interruption of Religious Service by a Chinese Mob, Distribution of Tracts, Invitation by a Petty, Mandarin to accompany him into the City, His subsequent Fright at the proposal being acceded to, Ineffectual Attempts to enter the City-gate.
- Further Incidents at Canton. Visit to Yun-tang, a Chinese Gentleman, Interest of Chinese in Art, Inventions and Astronomy of the West, Curosity of the Priest, Native Treatise on Astronomy of the West, Chinese Ingenuity and Ignorance of Physical Sciences, Execution Ground, 'Temple of Longevity,' Powtinqua's Garden, Howqua's Suburban Dwelling, Neglected Education of Females in China, Annual Procession in honour of the Idol Shing-Kea, General Review of Missionary Facilities at Canton.
- Departure for Shanghai. Arrival of Bishop Boone at Hong Kong, Recent Acts of Triennial Convention of the American Protestant Episcopal Church, Embarkment for Shanghai, Fellow Passengers, Skill of Chinese Fishermen, Decoy Fish, Chusan Group, Entrance of River Yangtze-keang, Services on Board, Chinese Forts and Battery, British Opium Vessels, Arrival at Shanghai.
- General Description of Shanghai. First Impressions, Topography of City, General Features of surrounding Country, Climate, Natural Productions, Character of People, Estimated Population, Commercial Importance and Connexion with the Interior, Native Exports, European Trade, Capture of the City by British Troops, Outport to Soo-chow, Growing Liberality of the Mandarins, Roman-Catholic Settlement, General View of Shanghai as a Missionary Station.
- Incidents at Shanghai. A Roman-Catholic Ruin, Missionary Excursion into the Interior, Roman Catholic Villages, Preaching in Heathen Temples, Visit to Norther Parts of the City, The 'Ching Wang Meaou,' Newly-canonized Hero-warrior, Caricature Shops, Romish Catholic Church in Corea, Visit from a Corean Sailor, Popish Mariolatry.
- Arrival at Ningpo. Voyage to Ningpo, Decent of the Yang-tze-keang, Bay of Chapoo, Chinese Pilot, City of Chin-hai, Proposed Lodging in a Taouist Monastery, Renting a Chinese House, Access to the Family of a Chinese patriarch, Absurd Principles of Native Medicine, Facts illustrative of Chinese Ideas on Marriage, Situation of House, the Tower of Ningo, Visit to a Mahomedan Mosque, A Roman-Catholic Patient.
- Excursion into the Interior. Personal Adventures on the Journey, Rural Scenery, Arrival at the Budhist Monastery of Teen-tung, Neighbouring Villages and Out-temples, Budhist Roasay, A Village Schoolmaster, Return to Ningpo, The 'Ching-wang-meaou," Temples in honour of Confucius, Visits to a Siamese Vessel.
- General Description of Ningpo. Topography, Local Magistrates, System of Provincial Government, Disgrace and Ruin of Former Mandarins, Effects of the British War on Rulers and People, Attempt of a Chinese to recapture the City, Literary Reputation of Ningpo, Privileges of Scholars, Native Products and Employments of Inhabitants, Facilities of Missionary Station, Climate, Moral Condition of People.
- Visit to the Island of Chusan, and Further Incidents at Ningpo. City of Ting-hai, Interview with a Romish padre, Similarity between Popish and Budhistic Ceremonies, Return to Ningpo, Annual Offerings to Departed Spirits, Temporary Abode in a Taouist Monastery, Female Worshippers, Chinese Garden and Artificial Grounds, Visit to a Native Doctor, Application of Opium-smokers for Medicine, A Native Pawnbroker, Visit to His Excellency the Taou-tai, Ceremony of Reception, His Public Integrity and Misfortunes.
- Second Excursion to Teen-Tung. Animated Appearance of Country, Ancestral Temples, Contributions to a Bag for Idols, Chinese Agriculture, Dragon-boats, Budhist Vigils in Monastery, Illiterate Priests, Friendliness of the Abbot, Grace to an Idol, Process of Consulting Idols, Ascent of the 'Tae pih san," Entertainment by a Chinese Gentleman, Return to Ningpo.
- Concluding Occurrences at Ningpo and Departure for Chusan. Roman Catholics in Ningpo, Chinese Military Archery, Ebullition of Popular Odium against the New 'Che-heen,' Effect of Reading the New Testament on a Native Merchant, Rebellion of Fung-kwa, Repulse of Troops, Final compromise, A Class of Hereditary Bondsmen, Arrival at Chusan, the Visit and Reception of the French Embassy, Christian Services among British Troops.
- General Description of Chusan. Topography, Character of Population, Natural Productions. Events of first Capture of British, Excesses of Troops, native Pillagers, Chinese Kidnappers, Suffering of British Soldiers, Armistice and Cession of Chusan, Insincerity of Chinese Government, Re-capture of Chusan, Rapid Successes of British Expedition along the Coast, Treaty of Nanking and Retention of Chusan, British Administration of Police, Foreign Trade, Missionary Prospects, Popular Feeling on reverting to their own Native Government.
- Second Visit to Shanghai. Voyage to Shanghai Comparative View of the Two Missionary Stations of Shanghai and Ningpo, A New Sect of Moralist in the Interior of China, An Original Work on Geography, by Commissioner Lin, Chinese Schoolmaster and Scholors, A Convict suffering by Deputy, Military Reviews, Offensive Epithets to Foreigners, Procession of the Taou-tai, Recent Supplement to the Edict of Toleration, Voyage to Chusan.
- Visit to the Sacred Island of Pooto. Voyage to Potto, Various Localities of the Island, The 'Pah-kwa,' The 'Seen-sze,' Romantic Scenery, Hospitality of the Abott, Priest importuning for Gifts of the Idols, Collegiate System of Succession to Temple-benefices, Funeral of a Priest, Visit to the Summit of 'Fuh ting shan,' A newly arrived Votary, General Review of Pootoo, and its Influence in the Diffusion of Budhism.
- Departure from Chusan to Foo-Chow Foo. Concluding Occurrences at Chusan, Political Fears of the Chinese, Excursion across the Island, Cases Illustrative of the Advantage of Medical Missionary Efforts, Voyage to Foo-chow, Roman Catholic Pilots, Mouth of the River Min, Picturesque Scenery, Approach to the City.
- Daily Occurrences at Foo-Chow. Novel Appearance of River-population, The Bridge of Foo-Chow, Vivid Scenes of a Chinese Suburb, British Consulate, View of the City from Summit of the 'Wooshih shan,' State of Relations between the British Counsul and the Local Mandarins, Punishment of some Tartars for Assault, An Excursion around the City-walls.
- Further Incidents at Foo-Chow. Excursions up the River and into the remote parts of the City, Visit to the District of Manchow Tartars, Anxiety of Police to prevent a Disturbance, Gradual Friendliness of the Tarter Soldiery, The 'Hot-baths,' Present Position of the Tartars throughout the Empire, The Contingency of a General Revolution in China considered, Latitudinarianism of Taouist and Budhist Priests, Roman Catholics, Mahomedans, Occurrences of the New-Moon Festival, Suburb of Natai, Fishing Cormorants, Case of Superstition and Priestcraft.
- General Description of Foo-Chow. Topography, Local Trade, Opium-drain of Specie, Native Imports and Exports, Monetary System, Prospects in reference to European Trade, Character of People, Number of Resident Graduates, and General System of Literary Promotion, Disposition of Local Mandarins, Prevalent Feelings towards Foreigners, Missionary Aspect.
- Departure for Amoy. Voyage to Amoy, Description of the Harbour, Capture of Amoy, and Occupation of Koo-lang-so by the British, Circumstances attending the first Arrival of Protestant Missionaries at Amoy, The Island of Koo-lang-soo, Suffering of the People from War and Postilence, Idolatrous Rites for averting their Calamity, European Graves, the Missionaries' Burial-place.
- Daily Occurrences at Amoy. Interview with the 'Hai-hong,' Large Collection of Ancestral Tablets, Idol-shops, Friendliness of People, Missionary Services, Regular Attendants, Service for Chinese Females.
- New-Year Festivities. Customary Observations of the New Year, Moral Tracts by Native Scholars, Antithetical Sentences over the Entrance of Houses, Busy Adjustment of Pecuniary Matters, Annual Custom of 'Surrounding the Furnace,' A Family Scene, Superstitious Mode of prognosticatin the Seasons of the coming Year, New-Year Visits to some Chinese Friends, Ta laou-yay, Lim-pai, Lim seen-sang, Tan see-sang, Universal Prevalance of Gambling, A Missionary Service.
- New-Year Visits of Ceremony to the High Manderines of Amoy. A Chinese Bride, Visit to the te-tok, or Chinese Admiral, His Adroitness in escaping the British War, His recent Disgrace, The Cham-hoo, or Military Commandant, His Discussion with the Missionaries, and Defence of Idolatry, The Taou-tai, or Prefect, a Manchow Tartar, The Hai-quan, or Inspector of Customs, a Manchow, The Hai-hong or Lord Mayor, A Budhist Nunnery, The Privileged Incorporation of Beggars.
- Facts Illustrative of the Prevalence and Effects of Opium-Smoking. Visit to Opium-Dens, Confessions of Opium-Smokers, Moral and Physical Effects of Opium, Local System of Smuggling and Mode of Retail, Detailed Testimony of ten consecutive cases of Opium-Smokers, taken from their own lips.
- Facts Illustrative of Female Infanticide. Trip to surrounding Villages, Testimony of Villagers as to the Prevalence and Motives of Infanticide, Village Clanships, Ancestral Temple, Village School-house, Confessions of Infanticide Parents, Modes of Death commonly practised, Hospitality of Medical Patient, Case of Attempted Infanticide, Degradation of the Female Sex.
- Daily Incidents at Amoy, Continued. Chinese Missionary Meeting, A Giant Specimen of Pyrotechnic Skill, Cessation of the Holidays, and General Resumption of Business, The Question of the Ancestral Tablet discussed, Chinese Bible-Class, Topics of Missionary Sermons, Original Illustrations of Chinese Hearers, Indirect Persecution of a Religious Inquirer.
- Mandarins's Entertainment to the Missionaries. Revised Translation of the Holy Scriptures, Proceedings at a Meeting of the Local Translation Committee, Special Entertainment to the Missionary Body, given jointly by the Five High Mandarins of Amoy, Previous Invitation and Arrangements, Ceremonies of Entrance and Reception, Etiquette of Precedence, Details of Feast, Topics of Conversations, Ceremonies of Departure, The secret Motives which prompted these Attentions.
- General Description of Amoy. Early Intercourse with Europe, Commercial Enterprise of the People, Chinese Emigrants, Topography of the City and Island, The 'White Stag Hill,' Boundary Regulations, A Roman Catholic Village, Another Explanatory Edict of Religous Toleration, Attempts at Concealment by the Mandarins, Local Prizes for Litarary Merit, Local Dialect, Moral Degradation of the People, Missionary Aspect of Amoy.
- Departure from Amoy, and Third Visit to Canton. Incidents of Last Sabbath at Amoy, Farewell Attentions of Chinese Friends, Voyage to Hong Kong, Visit to Canton, Comprehensive Review of Missionary Openings at Canton and in the Northern Ports of China, Recent Riots in Canton, Difficulties of Ke-Ying, Present Dangers of China, An Apology for the Chinese Government in their Exclusion of Opium, The Duty of Christian Legislators in Britain.
- General View of Hong Kong. First Occupation of Hong Kong, Gradual Influx of Settlers, Topography of the Island, General Reflections on the Influence and Prospects of Britain in the East, Ineligibility of Hong Kong as a Centre of Missionary Operations, Climate, Moral and Social Character of the Chinese Population, Diversity of Dialects, European Influences.
- General View of Hong Kong Continued. Actual Missionary Labours, Morrison Education Society, Medical Missionary Hospital, Roman-Catholic Mission at Hong Kong, Statement of Views respecting the Education of a Native-Christian Agency, Printing Establishments, Superior Missionary Facilities in the Four Northern Ports, General Views of Missionary Labourers, Appeal to the Christian Parents and Youth of Britain, Concluding Observations, List of Protestant Missionaries in China.
Type of Illustrations. The book is illustrated with 11 full page illustrations (tinted lithographs and tinted woodcut engravings) and one two page map).
Listing of Illustrations, Total of 12 (facing page indicated) [7 tinted lithographs and 5 tinted engraving]:
Map. China. Two page map with borders outlined in blue and the route of Smith's journey outlined in yellow. [After Table of Contents].
- View of Victoria, Hong Kong, From the Opposite Mainland (Frontispiece) [Lithograph, Tinted]
- View of Macao -- page 67 [Lithograph, Tinted]
- Annual Worshipping at Tombs -- page 119 [Woodcut Engraving, Tinted]
- Religious Procession of Chinese Ladies -- page 169 [Woodcut Engraving, Tinted]
- Offerings of Boat People at A Temple Near Ningpo -- 226 [Lithograph, Tinted]
- Dragon Boats -- 228 [Woodcut Engraving, Tinted]
- Chinese School -- 290 [Lithograph, Tinted]
- Superstitious Rites in a Taouist Temple -- 359 [Woodcut Engraving, Tinted]
- Preparations for the New Year -- 405 [Woodcut Engraving, Tinted]
- Chinese Gamblers -- 415 [Lithograph, Tinted]
- A Newly-Made Graduate Adoring the Ancestral Tablet on his Promotion -- 464 [Lithograph, Tinted]
- View of Hong Kong Harbor from East Point -- 503 [Lithograph, Tinted]
Bishop George Smith. In order to develop missionary work in Hong Kong and other parts of China, the Church of England established the Diocese of Victoria in 1849. The Right Reverend George Smith was consecrated as its first bishop and arrived in Hong Kong in 1850. The boundaries of the Diocese of Victoria were extensive and included Hong Kong, China and Japan. Bishop Smith travelled extensively and authored several books relating to his travels.
At the very end of the book, Bishop Smith has a list titled "A List of Protestant Missionaries, Who Are Either Now in China, or Have Been in China Within the Last Two Years." The list is dated May, 1846. The listing has an entry for A. Bettelheim, MD, Arrival - 1846, Station - Loo Choo Islands, General Remarks - "A converted Jew: supported by a Missionary fund specially raised for Loo Choo."
Collation. Full Title: A Narrative of an Exploratory Visit to Each of the Consular Cities in China and to the Islands of Hong Kong and Chusan, in Behalf of the Church Missionary Society, in the Years 1844, 1845, 1846, Frontispiece, Title Page, Preface (2 pages), Contents (12 pages), Directions to the Binder (a listing of illustrations), map of China (2 pages), Contents (numbered pages 1-532), Published by Seeley, Burnside & Seeley; Fleet Street, Hatchard & Son, Piccadilly; J. Nisbet and Co, Benners Street, London.