The Cross and the Floating Dragon:
the Gospel in Ryukyu
by Edwarde E. Bollinger

Bollinger, Edward E.:
Cross and the Floating Dragon: The Gospel in Ryukyu, 1983, William Carey Library, paperback, 8vo, 346 pp. Christian missionary work in Okinawa and the Ryukyu Islands. The author starts with the legend of Ishigaki Eisho, who in 1624 became the "first known conversion of a member of the Ryukyu Kingdom to the Christian faith...." There is a detailed discussion of the controversial missionary, Bernard J. Bettelheim, who was in Okinawa when the Perry Expedition to Japan arrived in 1853. The author traces in detail the key Christian missionaries/evangelists in Okinawa including; Fr. Theodore A. Frocade (French, Catholic), Fr. Furet (French, Catholic), Dr. Bernard J. Bettelheim (British Seaman's Mission), Hara Michinosuke (Baptist Missionary Union, Yokohama), Yasuhiko Higo (Methodist), Haraguchi Soichi (Baptist) Dr. Henry B.Schwarts (Methodist Board of Missions)and Reverend Earl R. Bull (Methodist Board of Missions). Probably the most comprehensive study published of the Christian missionaries/evangelists on Okinawa and the development of the Christian faith on Okinawa. ISBN: 0-87808-1909.


  1. Ishigaki Eisho: The First Martyr
  2. Dr. Bernard J. Bettelheim: Missonary Pioneer to Ryukyu
  3. Period of New Beginnings and Slow Growth, 1891-1908
  4. Rapid Growth and Expanding Christian Influence, 1909-1925
  5. Poverty, Militarism and Declining Church Growth, 1926-1945
  6. Into the Vacuum: Post-War Evangelism - A Period of Rapid Growth, 1945-1958
  7. Church Building and Social Involvement: Continued Growth with Sectarian Diversity, 1959-1968
  8. Preparation for Reversion to Japan, 1968-1972
  9. Post-Reversion Society and the Churches, 1972-1980


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Perry Expedition to Japan Books & Lithographs